Jewish languages email list archive, 2001-2003

January 2001

 

Date: Fri, 05 Jan 2001 10:50 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: list

I'd like to point out that we now have 14 subscribers, including scholars of the following languages: Judeo-Italian Eastern and Western Yiddish Judeo-Arabic Hebrew Jewish Neo-Aramaic Jewish English Judeo-Spanish There may be other languages represented, but I do not know everyone who has subscribed. Therefore, I think it would be a good time for us to start introducing ourselves. I'm Sarah Bunin Benor, a 3rd-year PhD student at Stanford University in the Department of Linguistics. My research focuses on the English speech of Jews in America, especially Orthodox Jews. I have also done some work on Yiddish and Ottoman Judeo-Spanish. I am very interested in comparative Jewish linguistics, especially in the Hebrew/Aramaic component of modern Jewish languages. My work is done mainly in the frameworks of sociolinguistics and language contact. I am looking forward to seeing the field of Jewish linguistics grow. I plan to be involved in a number of efforts to create infrastructure, including a website that's currently in the works and a journal and conferences in the (distant?) future. Just one request: I'd like to archive the messages that go out to this list and make them available on the web (probably on the Jewish Languages site that will be based at Emory). Is there anyone on this list who has good computer knowledge and would be willing to take charge of the archiving? I look forward to fruitful discussion on this list! -Sarah

Date: Fri, 05 Jan 2001 12:11 
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu> 
Subject: Re: list

Thank you Sarah for the information listed below. I have passed news of the list to a number of people, and hope that our membership increases. I would like to bring to the members' attention that our website (CJS Library, UPenn) has a page dedicated to "Jewish Languages and Cultures": http://www.library.upenn.edu/cjs/cult-lang.htm I invite all members to submit URLs and any other information that may be relative to the site, and hope it provides us with a fair starting point. Members may also contact me for pertinent UPenn and JTS holdings of Judeo-X language materials. As for myself, I am currently Librarian of the Center for Judaic Studies at UPenn. Prior to this, I was with the Special Collections of the JTS Library in New York. My Litt. D. dissertation was a comparative study of the Judeo-Italian manuscript tradition of the Bible, University of Florence, 1993. I am now preparing a complete edition and linguistic analysis of the Parma MS 3068 Judeo-Italian translation of the Prophets (post 1456), for the degree of Ph.D. at the Universität Freiburg, Germany. I am also working on an edition of the extant texts (all for Tisha be'Ab) of the Corfiote Judeo-Italian variety. Finally, I am involved with the updating of the Hebrew/Aramaic sections of Unicode, which would finally include characters used in the representation of Jewish languages, as well as including the Babylonian and Palestinian te'amim, and aliases for the now established names within the Unicode standard of the te'amim and nikkudot. Other interests lie in general and extended linguistic theory, linguistic typology, phonology, history of the book and of printing. My personal website may be found at http://petrarch.freeservers.com/jerchower. Finally, until my friend and colleague Johannes Niehoff signs onto the list, questions regarding Judeo-Greek may be forwarded to me. Shabbat Shalom Seth Jerchower

 

Date: Fri, 05 Jan 2001 12:14 
From: George Jochnowitz <jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu> 
Subject: Re: list

I'm George Jochnowitz, professor emeritus of linguistics at the College of Staten Island, CUNY. I've written about Judeo-Italian, Judeo-Provencal (Shuadit), and bilingualism among Lubavitcher children. At the moment, I'm curious about whether Jews expelled from Provence could have moved to parts of theWestern Yiddish area and contributed to the language after speakers of Eastern Yiddish had already moved away.

 

Date: Mon, 08 Jan 2001 04:10 
From: <mihalevy @ aol.com> 
Subject: Kein Thema

Michael S. Halévy, Center for Ibero-American Studies, University of Hamburg and Institute for the History of the Jews in Germany, Hamburg. research interest: Jewish Interlinguistics Judeo-romance languages Judezmo Judeo-Portuguese

 

Date: Mon, 08 Jan 2001 11:16 
From: Yona Sabar <sabar @ humnet.ucla.edu> 
Subject: introduction

My major interest is in the Neo-Aramaic dialects and folk literatures of Kurdistani Jews, and related areas (Semitic languages in general, and Hebrew and Aramaic in particular, including Bible translations and Hebrew elements in Jewish languages). Dr. Yona Sabar, Professor of Hebrew and Aramaic Dept. of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures UCLA Los Angeles, Ca 90095-1511 Tel. (310) 474-6430 (H); (310) 206-1389 (O); Fax (310) 206-6456

 

Date: Wed, 10 Jan 2001 18:31 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Jewishness

Hello. I'm doing a workshop for some Jewish grad students next week about the "Jewishness" of Jewish languages. One of the points I plan to make is that a piece of Jewish speech/writing can be considered Jewish even if it has no Hebrew/Aramaic words. Jewish languages are distinct from their non-Jewish correlates in other ways besides lexicon- substratum syntactic influence, independent sound changes, discourse differences... Do you think this is the case for the language(s) you work on? If so, could you please send me a sentence of that language, pointing out how it's different from the non-Jewish correlate, and explaining why you think those differences exist? An example from Jewish English would be: Jewish English: Are you coming to me for dinner? General American English: Are you coming to my place for dinner? ("come to me" - substratum influence from Yiddish) (source: observed from a Modern Orthodox female) Also, could you please send a sample sentence that does include Hebrew/Aramaic words? Translations will be much appreciated, since I have no knowledge of Persian, Provencale, Arabic, etc. If the sentences are from texts or are already cited in papers you've written, please send the references too. Maybe it would be good to respond to the list as a whole (rather than to just my e-mail). No pressure - if you're too busy to respond, I'll understand. Thanks in advance, Sarah

 

Date: Thu, 11 Jan 2001 03:07 
From: Judith Rosenhouse <gsrjudy @ techunix.technion.ac.il> 
Subject: Re: Jewishness

Dear Sarah, I am working mainly in Arabic (dialects, including Jewish ones) and Hebrew. But I have no lexical examples right now. One thing is worth mention here, which came up in my old dissertation: Moroccan Jews use the accusative particle "bain, bash" ('that') much more than Muslims do. They also use these particles more than the Muslims, who seem to prefer "belli". References for this feature: Ph.D. diss.: Judith Rosenhouse (1974) Coordination and Subordination in Urban Moroccan Colloquial Arabic Dialects, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, pp. 62-74, (in Hebrew, and transcription). This topic was also mentioned in my paper (1976) "The types of direct obejct clauses and their subordination in some colloquial Arabic dialects and Classical Arabic," ZDMG, 126 (1) 10-24. See also perhaps: (1978) "On the complexity of some types of complex sentences in urban Moroccan Arabic and some other Arabic dialects" Afroasiatic Linguistics, 5 (4), 1-15. All the best, Judith.

 

Date: Thu, 11 Jan 2001 12:25 
From: George Jochnowitz <jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu> 
Subject: Re: Jewishness

In the Judeo-Italian play _La Gnora Luna_ by the pseudonymous Bene Kedem, the expression _da fuori_ ('outside') is used to mean 'cemetery'.

 

Date: Fri, 12 Jan 2001 11:22 
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu> 
Subject: Re: Jewishness

As to corroborate George's last message (also used was the more archaic "de fora"), the Christian euphemistic term in Florentine for "to die, to ruin oneself" is "Andare/Ire alle Ballodole", the via delle Ballodole being at one time outside the city walls (if I recall correctly, just past Rifredi and Careggi) where the comunal cemetary was found. In Judeo-Florentine, the traditional term for 'Arvit was "dire Ašchivenu", which of course refers to the prayer only said at the 'Arvit service. Are there parallel references to this type of synecdoche in other Jewish languages? Best, Seth Jerchower

 

Date: Fri, 26 Jan 2001 21:05 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: call for papers - from John Zemke

CALL FOR PAPERS FOR 2001 MLA CONVENTION IN NEW ORLEANS The 2001 MLA convention will be held in New Orleans, Louisiana. Members should familiarize themselves with the guidelines for the MLA convention, which appear in the September 2000 PMLA (pp. 475-87), before writing to the organizer listed below. All participants in convention sessions must be MLA members by 1 April 2001. Organizers are responsible for responding to all inquires. Members may participate in (i.e., organize and chair, read papers, serve as speakers or panelists, or participate in any other way that involves having their names listed in the Program) a maximum of two meetings. [www.mla.org] Discussion Group: Sephardic Studies (S2) Session title: Sephardic Scribes and Manuscripts, Printers and Presses, Bookmen and Readers. Session description: Papers addressing commercial, sociological, ideological, and other aspects of the production, distribution, and commerce in Sephardic manuscripts and/or books, holy as well as secular. Type of submission preferred: One-page abstract, brief bibliography, and vitae by March 16, 2001. Only postmarked submissions will be accepted. [papers in English, Portuguese, and/or Spanish] Contact Information: John Zemke Romance Languages 137 Arts & Sciences University of Missouri Columbia MO 65211 Fax: (573) 884-8171 Tel: (573) 882-6977 E-mail: ZemkeJ @ missouri.edu

 

Date: Mon, 29 Jan 2001 20:32 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: introductions

Hello. We now have 42 subscribers, and only a handful of us have introduced ourselves. If you'd like, please send a brief message to the list jewish-languages @ lists.stanford.edu telling who you are, your academic affiliation, and your research interests. Thanks, Sarah Benor Stanford University

 

Date: Tue, 30 Jan 2001 13:51 
From: Hayim Sheynin <user @ gratz.cncdsl.com> 
Subject: introductions

To the members of jewish-languages @ lists.stanford.edu My name is Hayim Y. Sheynin. I studied Semitic and Jewish languages in St.-Petersburg University, Russia, Hebrew University in Jerusalem and University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. My research interests are in Hebrew, Judeo-Arabic and Judeo-Spanish, while I feel myself comfortable also with Classical Greek and Latin), Romance, Semitic and Slavic languages and literatures. In the last period I was dealing with Judeo-Spanish language and literature. For long time my topics were in research of medieval Hebrew poetry. I am affiliated with Gratz College in Philadelphia. In my list of publications I list about 90 items (mostly articles and reviews) in English, Russian, Spanish and German languages. I wrote also a number of bibliographic works. Sincerely, Dr. Hayim Y. Sheynin Head of Reference Services Tuttleman Library of Gratz College 7605 Old York Rd. Melrose Park, PA 19027 tel. 215 635-7300, ext. 161 fax: 215 635-7320 e-mail: hsheynin @ gratz.edu

 

Date: Wed, 31 Jan 2001 09:56 
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu> 
Subject: Fw: Dante: Arabic and Judaic influences "in" and "around"...

FYI for List Members: Seth Jerchower Ed Emery ed.emery @ CWCOM.NET To: ITALIAN-STUDIES @ JISCMAIL.AC.UK Sent: Tuesday, January 30, 2001 4:30 PM Subject: Dante: Arabic and Judaic influences "in" and "around"... You are invited to attend a Weekend Seminar on "ARABIC AND JUDAIC INFLUENCES IN AND AROUND DANTE ALIGHIERI" ["Presenze arabe e ebraiche 'in' e 'intorno' a Dante Alighieri"] to be held in the Bateman Auditorium, Gonville and Caius College, University of Cambridge on Saturday 28 April 2001 10.00am-6.00pm [Website: http://www.geocities.com/dantestudies] OUTLINE In various parts of the world, people are working on the question of Arabic and Judaic influences in and around Dante. We are looking to break new ground in this important area of Dante studies. In the eighty-odd years since the publication of the ground-breaking work of Miguel Asín Palacios, isolated individuals have been working with limited resources and within limited disciplines, examining the relevant issues. Fortunately the climate is now beginning to change - not least in Italy. Arabo-Italian studies, Judeo-Italian studies and trans-Mediterranean cultural studies have become intellectually respectable and are attracting research funding. We are proposing to hold a small seminar, to bring together some of the people working in this field. We shall spend a day in Cambridge (Saturday 28 April 2001) documenting the present state of research, and looking at new research initiatives being developed internationally. All interested parties are welcome to attend. Our discussions will be broad-ranging. In the longer term we aim to bring in literature, science, music, architecture, medicine, cuisine, graphic art, glassmaking, seafaring, etc. Some of these themes will be covered at the Cambridge seminar. The intention of our seminar is to build towards a full-scale conference, to be held in Venice in October 2002. CONFIRMED SPEAKERS FOR THE SEMINAR [Titles of papers are provisional.] GIORGIO BATTISTONI of Verona: The Three Rings - the Judaic, Arabic and Christian presence at the Court of Can Grande della Scala. DANIELA BOCCASSINI of Vancouver: "A Falcon Ready for the King's Hand": Reassessing the question of Dante's Islamic sources via the medieval theory and practice of falconry. ED EMERY: The Trajectory of AABBBA from Ibn Quzman of Andalus, via the Marian Laudes to Dante's "Morte villana di pietà nemica". DEBORAH HOWARD of Cambridge: A Brief Overview: Issues in the transmission of visual culture. KURT V. JENSEN, of Odense, Denmark: Riccoldo of Monte Croce 1242-1320: a Florentine Missionary among the Muslims: his "Contra legem saracenorum". CARLO SACCONE of Padova: Dante and the Libro della Scala di Maometto - the Book of the Ascent of Mahomet. PAOLO SCARNECCHIA of Naples: Musical matters: Arabic musical influences in Italy - 1150-1350. SANDRA DEBENEDETTI STOW of Ramat Gan, Israel: "The problem of Free Will and Divine Wisdom as a link between Dante and Medieval Jewish Thought." This is an open seminar. There is no charge for admission, although you may make a contribution on the day if you wish... The papers will be delivered in Italian and English. IF YOU WISH to register for the seminar OR if you wish to receive the published papers of the seminar OR if you wish to be on the mailing list for Venice October 2002, please send your details - by e-mail to: ed.emery @ cwcom.net - by fax to: 0870 133 0145 [from outside UK 0044 870 133 0145] - or by post to: Ed Emery [Dante Seminar], Peterhouse, Cambridge CB2 1RD 30.i.01

February 2001

 

Date: Sun, 04 Feb 2001 15:01 
From: Yitzchak Kerem <ykerem @ actcom.co.il> 
Subject: Intro of Yitzchak Kerem

I am an historian on the Jews of Greece and the Sephardim. I am affiliated with The Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Aristotle University in Thessaloniki, Greece.I have a linguistics background from graduate school and have researched and published academic articles on Judeo-Spanish and Judeo-Greek. As part of my monthly e-mail publication on Sephardic and Oriental Jewry "Sefarad, the Sephardic Newsletter" (currently beginning its tenth year), I keep my readers posted on the latest research on non-Ashkenazi Jewish languages and dialects. In general I am interested in sociological and cultural aspects of Judeo-Greek, Judeo-Spanish, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Persian, and more. Shalom, Yitzchak Kerem ykerem @ actcom.co.il mskerem @ pluto.mscc.huji.ac.il

 

Date: Sun, 04 Feb 2001 09:22 
From: George Jochnowitz <jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu> 
Subject: polemics by Nahmanides

Rabbi Moshe ben Nahman (RaMBan, Nahmanides) engaged in a public disputation in 1263 called the Disputation of Barcelona. According to the Encyclopedia Judaica article entitled Nahmanides, "At the request of the bishop of Gerona, Nahmanides summarized his views in a book, the _Sefer ha-Vikku'ah_, which is still extant." James Carroll, in his magnificent new book _Constantine's Sword_, says, "When Nachmanides's own, entirely self-assertive account of the Barcelona disputation was published, with its forthright denunciation of the Dominicans, King James ordered the text burned and the rabbi exiled for two years" (p. 335). George Jochnowitz jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu

 

Date: Mon, 05 Feb 2001 03:15 
From: Marion Aptroot <aptroot @ phil-fak.uni-duesseldorf.de> 
Subject: Introduction to Jewish Languages list

I teach Yiddish at a German university (Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf). I am especially interest in historical linguistics, Bible translations, Yiddish language contact with Dutch and German, and early modern Yiddish literature, but I also look forward to reading discussions on other topics in the broader field of Jewish languages. Marion Aptroot

 

Date: Monday, 05 February 2001 05:30 
From: Tsuguya Sasaki <tsuguya @ gol.com> 
Subject: Self-introduction

Having studied in Jerusalem for the dissertation under the supervision of the late Prof. Shelomo Morag, I returned to Japan and am teaching Hebrew etc. at a couple of universities. I am interested mainly in the grammar, lexicon and sociolinguistics of Modern Hebrew as well as various aspects of Hebrew-Yiddish contact linguistics and the Jewish background of Zamenhof and Esperanto. I am also interested in Hebrew and Yiddish information processing including Web authoring, word-processing and database management in these languages. Tsuguya Sasaki Kobe, Japan E-mail: tsuguya @ gol.com WWW: http://www2.gol.com/users/tsuguya/

 

Date: Mon, 05 Feb 2001 08:51 
From: Joseph A Levi <jalevi21 @ juno.com> 
Subject: introduction

My name is Joseph Abraham Levi. I hold a Ph.D. in Romance Philology, (concentration: Portuguese, Medieval Spanish, Italian; Portuguese, Hispanic, and Italian Linguistics), UW-Madison (1993). Academic affiliation: University of Iowa. 1993-1994: University of Georgia. (taught Portuguese). I have been at the University of Iowa since Fall 1994. 1994-1998: taught Portuguese, Medieval Portuguese; Medieval Spanish, Islam, Islam in Africa, History of Pre-Colonial Africa, History of Africa Since 1880. 1998-1999: independent scholar; Lisbon with a 6-month scholarship. 1999-2001: independent scholar; temporary ESL instructor. Unfortunately, I am still on the job market. Research interests: Portuguese, Brazilian, and Lusophone Studies; Romance Philology/Linguistics; The Sephardic Diaspora in the Americas (1492-19th century); Portuguese Jewry; Medieval Italian Jewry; Judeo-Italian Languages; Medieval Spanish; Colonial Brazilian Literature, Culture, and Society; Islam in Colonial Brazil; Medieval Islam; The Jesuits in Asia (16th-17th centuries). Address: Joseph Abraham Levi ESL Program University of Iowa Iowa City IA 52242 jalevi21 @ juno.com josephlevi @ hotmail.com [with attachments]

 

Date: Tue, 6 Feb 2001 12:22 
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu> 
Subject: Greetings and Salutations (a query)

Dear hevra! I received this inquiry the other day. What follows is the sheela and my teshuva (imagine if e-mail existed in the middle ages, what a loss it might have been for us today...). I thought it would be of interest to the list. Another query from me: is anyone interested in working on a collaborative project on the Soncino Polyglot Bible (Soncino, Const. 1547-48)? Kol tuv, Seth Jerchower ************************************************* ----- Original Message ----- From: "bill sullivan" bills25 @ webtv.net Sent: Monday, February 05, 2001 11:39 AM Subject: Judeo-Italian > Hello. I am a foreign language teacher (German & Spanish) in > Birmingham, Alabama, who collects greetings in different languages, > which I sometimes use as a mini-linguistics lession in my classes. I > am especially interested in the various Jewish language varieties, but > sadly so far only have Yiddish and Ladino in my collection. > Can you tell me how to say "good day / hello" and "how are you?" in > Judeo-Italian? I feel sure shalom mst be used but would like to find > something unique to the culture if it exists, something that shows its > uniqueness from Italian or Hebrew, either in pronuncation or syntax. > How about in any of the other languages? > I appreciate your help and offer you my heartfelt thanks. > Bill Sullivan Dear Professor Sullivan, Unfortunately, not much survives to tell us of simple greetings. For Judeo-Florentine, a play entitled "La Gnora Luna", written and published (Rassegna Mensile d'Israel v.6 n.11-12 March-April 1932) by Umberto Cassuto's children, attempts to recreate the spoken [and already obsolete] Judeo-Florentine dialect. What follows are some examples of greetings used by Florentine Jews (in addressing other Florentine Jews; NB [N] is used to indicate the pronunciation of the Hebrew letter "'Ayin", among most Italian Jews a nasal uvular; [H] = "Het"): -Bonasera (good evening; in Florence also good afternoon). -Sciavua' tov (pronounced in Florence, and by most Italian Jews, "šavuaN tov"; good week, the greeting for coming and going upon the ending of the Sabbath, that is, on Saturday evening; common Jewish usage; Hebrew: šabua' tob). -Baruch abbà (welcome! Hebrew "barukh habah" = blessed be he that comes" vis welcome! common, said however to a foreign Jew); alternatively, to a Jewish Florentine woman "benvenuta", passim in text). -Bon Purim/Buon Purim (Happy Purim). Also, in Florence: -"Bon/Buon Sciabbad" = Good Sabbath (Yiddish, "Gut Shabbos", Hebrew, Šabbat šalom); in Rome: "Bon Sciabadde". -Bon/Buon Mo'ed (pronounced [moNed]; Happy Holiday (Yiddish: Gut Yontif [< Hebrew "yom tov", holiday]; Hebrew: Hag sameaH [joyous holiday]); also in use would be the typical Sefardic holiday greeting, "moNadim le-simHa" (mo'adim le-SimHa = [be it] a festival for joy), to which one replies "Hagim u-zemanim le-sasson" (Holidays and occasions for happiness"). From the above, one could also desume that equally as common among the Jews of Florence were "Bon dí/giorno" and "Bona notte". Similarly, and I need to check further, similar greetings were diffused among Jews native to other cities. The phrase "far scialom" means to "make peace". Best regards, Seth Jerchower ************************************************* Seth Jerchower Public Services Librarian Center for Judaic Studies University of Pennsylvania 420 Walnut Street Philadelphia, PA 19106 Tel: (215) 238-1290, ext. 203 Fax: (215) 238-1540 sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu http://www.library.upenn.edu/cjs/

 

Date: Wed, 7 Feb 2001 12:35 
From: Hayim Sheynin <hsheynin @ gratz.edu> 
Subject: Re: polemics by Nahmanides

Dear Prof. Johnowitz: It is an honor for this list that you contribute to it. However the truth is rather on Encyclopedia Judaica's side. James Carrol got it wrong. Here in the library of Gratz College we have a rare book entitled "Sefer ha-Nitzzahon Vetus : ex Ms. Bibliothecae Argentoratensis". Altdorf, 1681 which contains a number of accounts of different Jewish-Christian debates. Among others, on pp. 28-60 is printed Dispvtatio R. Nachmanidis in Hebrew and Latin in pallel columns. There is a modern English edition of this book by David Berger published in Philadelphia by JPS, 1979 under the title The Jewish-Christian debate in the high Middle Ages: a critical edition. For you and people who are interested in the subject I can recommend the following books: 1. Nahmanides. The disputation at Barcelona / Ramban (Nahmanides) ; translated and annotated by Charles B. Chavel. New York : Shilo Pub. House, c1983. 2. Judaism on trial : Jewish-Christian disputations in the Middle Ages / edited and translated by Hyam Maccoby. Rutherford, N.J. : Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, c1982. 3. Chazan, Robert. Barcelona and beyond : the Disputation of 1263 and its aftermath / Robert Chazan. Berkeley : University of California Press, c1992. DLC OCLC: 24504206 4. Naòhmanides, ca. 1195-ca. 1270. òVikuaòh ha-Ramban : °im ha-mumar Pablo Krisòtiyano be-Bartselona li-fene ha-Melekh Ya°aòkov ha-Rishon òveha-komrim, bi-shenat 5 alafim °eâsrim òve-shalosh. Uve-rosho Toldot ha-Ramban / mimeni Re®uven Margaliyot. Nidpas me-òhadash. [Brooklyn?] : °Aòteret, 735 [1974 or 1975] DLC OCLC: 31292924 5. Braude, Morris, 1883- Conscience on trial [microform] : three public religious disputations between Christians and Jews in the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries / translated from several Hebrew and Latin sources, annotated and with commentary by Morris Braude. 1st ed. New York : Exposition Press, c1952. [MICROFILM] OCLC: 32640318 6. Mutius, Hans-Georg von. Die christlich-jèudische Zwangsdisputation zu Barcelona : nach dem hebrèaischen Protokoll des Moses Nachmanides / Hans-Georg von Mutius. Frankfurt am Main : Lang, c1982. DLC OCLC: 9308774 7. Naòhmanides, ca. 1195-ca. 1270. òVikuaòh ha-Ramban. Russian Disput Nakhmanida. Ob iskazhenii perevodov Biblii i o propovedi khristianstva evreëiìam / B. Khaskelevich. N§ëiìu-æIork : Izd-vo ob-va "Khama", 1982. DLC OCLC: 12311685 8. Naòhmanides, ca. 1195-ca. 1270. òVikuaòh ha-Ramban. Catalan Disputa de Barcelona de 1263 entre mestre Mossâe de Girona i fra Pau Cristiáa / estudi introductori per Jaume Riera i Sans ; traducciâo dels textos hebreus i llatins, i notes, per Eduard Feliu ; páortic de Pasqual Maragall. 1a ed. Barcelona : Columna, 1985. DLC OCLC: 13820830 9. Naòhmanides, ca. 1195-ca. 1270. òVikuaòh ha-Ramban. English The disputation at Barcelona / Ramban ; translated and annotated by Charles B. Chavel. New York, N.Y. : Shilo Pub. House, c1983. DLC OCLC: 10302339 10. Naòhmanides, 1195-1263. òVikuaòh ha-Ramban. French La dispute de Barcelone : suivi du Commentaire sur Esaèie 52- 53 / Naòhmanide (Rabbi Moèise ben Naòhman) ; traduit de l'hâebreu par âEric Smilâevitch, archives du texte traduites du latin par Luc Ferrier. 2e. âed. rev. et corr. [France] : Verdier, [1987], c1984. OCLC: 32649134 11. Naòhmanides, ca. 1195-1263. òVikuaòh ha-Rambam. French La dispute de Barcelone : suivi du Commentaire sur Esaèie 52- 53 / Naòhamanide (Rabbi Moèise ben Naòhman) ; traduit de l'hâebreu par âEric Smilâevitch, archives du texte traduites du latin par Luc Ferrier. 3e. âed. rev. et corr. [France] : Verdier, [l989], c1984. OCLC: 32642657 12. Naòhmanides, ca. 1195-ca. 1270. Vikuaòh ha-Ramban. French La Dispute de Barcelone : suivi du Commentaire sur Esaèie 52- 53 / Naòhamanide (Rabbi Moèise ben Naòhman) ; trad. de l'hâebreu par âEric Smilâevitch, archives du texte trad. du latin par Luc Ferrier. 4e. âed. rev. et corr. [France] : Verdier, 1996, c1984. OCLC: 36434437 13. Naòhmanides, ca. 1195-ca. 1270. Dissertation èuber die Vorzèuge der Mosaischen Lehre gehalten in der Synagoge zu Barcelona = Tåorat ha- ëSìhem temåimah : deraësìhah ësìhe-daraësìh...°al ma°alat ha-Tåorah /hoòsetåihah le-®åor ... ®Aharon Yelåineq. 2e Ausg, von A. Jellinek Wien : [Herzfeld und Bauer], 633, 1872. OCLC: 40569680 14. Naòhmanides, ca. 1195-ca. 1270. òVåikåuaòh ha-Ramba''n Sefer òVåikåuaòh ha-Ramba''n : be-°inyan ha-®emåunah lifney meleëkìh òve- âsaråim / håugah °al påi kitvey yad måe®ået Moësìheh ëSìhòtainësìhnadder. Berolini ; ëSìhòteòtòtin : Bi-defåus ®E. ëSìhrenòtòsel, 620, 1859. OCLC: 40576183 15. Naòhmanides, ca. 1195-ca. 1270. òVikuaòh ha-Ramban : °im ha-mumar Pablo Krisòtiyano be-Bartselona li-fene ha-Melekh Ya°aòkov ha-Rishon òveha-komrim, bi-shenat 5 alafim °eâsrim òve-shalosh. Uve-rosho Toldot ha-Ramban / mimeni Re®uven Margaliyot. Nidpas me-òhadash. [Brooklyn?] : °Aòteret, 735 [1974 or 1975] DLC OCLC: 31292924 16. Naòhmanides, ca. 1195-ca. 1270. Works. English Writings & discourses / Ramban (Nachmanides) ; translated and annotated with index by Charles B. Chavel. New York : Shilo Pub. House, c1978. DLC OCLC: 4258381 In GRZ 17. Tostado Martin, Alfonso. La disputa de Barcelona 1263 : controversia judeocristiana / por Alfonso Tostado Martin. Salamanca : Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca, Facultad de Filologia Biblica Trilingèue, 1986. OCLC: 19862697 Pardon the wrong diacritics. This is how regular text e-mail translates special symbols used by OCLC database. Of course the literature on the subject is rather extensive and there is no possibility to provide much longer list in e-mail message. Shalom le-khullam and greetings to the participants of the list. Sincerely, Dr. Hayim Y. Sheynin Head of Reference Services Tuttleman Library of Gratz College 7605 Old York Rd. Melrose Park, PA 19027 tel. 215 635-7300, ext. 161 fax: 215 635-7320 e-mail: hsheynin @ gratz.edu

 

Date: Wed, 14 Feb 2001 16:05 
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu> 
Subject: New Publication

I would like to bring to the group's attention the following book: The Ladino scriptures : Constantinople-Salonica (1540-1572) : a critical edition - by Moshe Lazar ; technical editor, Francisco J. Pueyo Mena. Labyrinthos, Lancaster, Calif., 2000. 2 v. (xxxvii, 1997 p.) : ill. These are the Judeo-Spanish sections of the same Polyglot I've mentioned in my previous postings. We have a copy here at the CJS Library at UPenn, so if anyone needs access to any parts, please feel free to contact me. Kol tuv! Seth Jerchower ************************************************* Seth Jerchower Librarian Center for Judaic Studies University of Pennsylvania 420 Walnut Street Philadelphia, PA 19106 Tel: (215) 238-1290, ext. 203 Fax: (215) 238-1540 sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu http://www.library.upenn.edu/cjs/ *************************************************

 

Date: Sat, 17 Feb 2001 15:03 
From: Benjamin H. Hary <bhary @ learnlink.emory.edu> 
Subject: Call for Papers/AJS

Dear Colleagues, At the last AJS meeting, it was suggested that we try and organize several session on Jewish Languages at the upcoming AJS (DC, Dec 16-18, 2001) http://www.brandeis.edu/ajs/2001.html (soon to be launched). I propose we devote one session to translations of sacred texts in several JL. So far Professor Jackonowitz has expressed interest (Judeo-Italian and Judeo-Provencal) and I will do Judeo-Arabic. Professor Greenspahn will be the discussant. The deadline for submission is March 19 so we need to act soon. If you are interested, please send me a title, abstract and a few words about yourself. With many thanks, ************************************************** Benjamin Hary, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Hebrew, Arabic and Linguistics AT Tel Aviv University for Spring 2001: 50 Dizengoff Street, Apt 1906 IL-64332 Tel Aviv, Israel Tel/Fax: 011-972-3-528-0423; Mobile: 011-972-58-805636 **************************************************

 

Date: Tue, 20 Feb 2001 13:11 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Intro.DShapira

Dan Shapira is having trouble sending messages to the list, so I'm forwarding it for him: INTRODUCTION Dr. Dan Shapira Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Open University of Israel, Ben-Zvi Institute Interest in specific Jewish Languages: JUDEO-PERSIAN, JUDEO-TURKIC (Qaraim, Tatar), JUDEO-ARABIC, JUDEO-GREEK e-mail: dshapira @ h2.hum.huji.ac.il tel: (o.) 972-2-5883972; (h.) 972-2-5357197; 972-2-5357215; mobile: 972-053-628421 1991, B.A., Hebrew University of Jerusalem; majored in Ancient Semitic Languages and Indian, Iranian and Armenian Studies 1993, M.A., Hebrew University of Jerusalem; the thesis in Jewish Language Program, an edition of the Judeo-Persian Tafsir of Hosea 2000, PhD ("Studies in Zoroastrian Exegesis: Zand") Publications in the field of Jewish Languages An Aramaic-Irano-Armenian Note," Iran & Caucasus II, Research Papers from the Caucasian Centre for Iranian Studies, Yerevan, edited by Garnik Asatrian, Teheran 1998, 95-101 "Qibba-ye Dåny'êl or The Story of Daniel - in Judæo-Persian: The Text and its Translation", Sephunot 22 (1999), 337-366 [Hebrew] "Manichaios, Jywndg Gryw and Some Other Manichaean Terms and Titles", Irano-Judaica IV, ed. Shaul Shaked and Amnon Netzer, Jerusalem 1999, 122-150 "Celestial Race, the Jews", Kabbala: International Journal for the Study of Jewish Mystical Texts 5 (Los Angeles 2000), 111-128 "Two Names of the First Khazar Jewish Beg," Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi 10 (1998-1999), pp. 231-240 "Judæo-Persion Versions of Biblical Apocrypha" ("Irano-Judaica V", 2001; to appear soon) "Anu and Uqrå: Two Mandæan Terms Revised", Kabbala: International Journal for the Study of Jewish Mystical Texts 6 (2001; to appear soon) Hebrew Tomb-Inscriptions from the Crimea: Report of the Expedition of the Ben-Zevi Institute to the Karaite Cemetery of Chufut-Qal'e (Crimea), edited by Dan Shapira [Hebrew; 4 articles by Dan Shapira and 6 by Dan Shapira together with other authors, 4 by other authors, edited by Dan Shapira] (to be published by Ben-Zevi Institute, Jerusalem, in 2001; 200 pages + 60 plates) "Judaeo-Persian Translations of Old Persian Material: A Case of Linguistic (Dis)continuity", Persian Beginnings - Early Judaeo-Persian and the Emergence of New Persian, Göttingen 2001; to appear soon) Hebrew translation from Old Georgian and research in: Konstantin Lerner (ed.), Hebrew Translation of Old Georgian Conversion of Qartli, (with assistance of Dan Shapira) Ben-Zevi Insitute, Jerusalem, 2001 (in print) "Mangup Türküsü: A New Source in Qrym-Tatar" (to appear soon) Reading ability in Jewish languages: all of them, except Malayalam Speaking ability in Jewish languages: Yiddish, Judezmo Reading Languages: English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Dutch, Swedish, Danish; Russian (and other Slavic languages); Yiddish; Hungarian, Turkish of Turkey (incl. Osmanli), Azeri; Jagatay, Uzbek, Qaraim, Tatar, etc; Greek, Latin; Arabic, Hebrew, Akkadian, Ugaritic, Syriac, Aramaic, Ethiopic, Inscriptional South Arabian, Maltese; Coptic; Sanskrit, Urdu, Hindi, Punjabi; Persian, Pahlavi, Parthian, Sogdian, Avestan, Old Persian, Kurdish, Pashto, Ossetic; Armenian (Classical, Western, Eastern); Old Georgian; Middle Chinese Spoken Languages: Hebrew, Russian, English, German, Arabic, Persian, Yiddish, Judezmo

 

Date: Tue, 20 Feb 2001 17:45 
From: Jill Kushner <jkushner @ ucla.edu> 
Subject: Re: Call for Papers/AJS

That's a great idea. And if anyone is interested in a session on Jewish languages and identity, please let me know. I work on Judeo-Spanish language maintenance and Sephardic identity. Thank you, Jill Kushner

Date: Tue, 20 Feb 2001 17:46 
From: Miriam Isaacs <misaacs @ wam.umd.edu> 
Subject: AJS 2001 Proposed AJS Panel for Annual Meeting: 2001 Call For Papers

Dear Colleagues, At the last AJS meeting, it was suggested that we try and organize several session on Jewish Languages at the upcoming AJS (DC, Dec 16-18, 2001) http://www.brandeis.edu/ajs/2001.html(soon to be launched). I propose we devote a session to the subject of Ideology and Curriculum: Interactions Between Jewish Studies Programs and Jewish Languages in the University Setting In the fields of Jewish Studies working in original languages is highly valued, yet the provision of languages such Yiddish, Ladino and other languages is often considered secondary to content subjects. At the same time, fewer and fewer native speakers of Jewish languages are to be found, so that perpetuation of Jewish languages other than Hebrew for scholarly and other reasons becomes problematic. Papers are sought that address one or more of the following issues; 1. issues of Yiddish and Ladino in Jewish Studies in a university setting 2. the relationships between language instruction and Jewish identity issues 3. perpetuating a heritage language in alternative settings 4. clashes in language attitudes 5. program design; situating Jewish languages in the academic context 6. approaches toward dialect and language variation 7. staffing; resources and assessment of competencies of students 8. issues relating to language and sanctity 9. approaching language variation and dialect. 10. code switching in the context of Jewish multilingualism Please send in name, Title of Paper, abstract and a brief paragraph about yourself and the required checks for registration by March 5th to: Miriam Isaacs, University of Maryland, College Park, Meyerhoff Center for Jewish Studies 0113 Woods Hall, College Park, MD, 20742.

 

Date: Sat, 17 Feb 2001 14:56 
From: Benjamin H. Hary <bhary @ learnlink.emory.edu> 
Subject: introduction

I received my PhD in 1987 from the University of California, Berkeley, where I wrote about Egyptian (actually Cairene) Judeo-Arabic in the 16th and 17th centuries. In 1992 I published "Multiglossia in Judeo-Arabic" (Brill) and this year my edited volume (with Hayes and Astren) "Judaism and Islam: Boundaries, Communication, and Interaction" appeared. I have been writing on Judeo-Arabic in general and its place in Arabic on the one hand and in other Jewish languages on the other hand. I have also written on the Sharh, translations of scared texts from Hebrew (and Aramaic) into Judeo-Arabic. I am also interested in comparative work of Jewish languages and translations of sacred texts into various Jewish languages/ethnolects/varieties. I have been teaching at Emory University since 1987. One of the courses I offer regularly is "Hisory of Jewish Languages." I have also offered in the past a Graduate seminar, "Issues in Jewish Linguistics." In addition, I am engaged in compiling a corpus for spoken modern Hebrew; you may consult our websites: http://spinoza.tau.ac.il/hci/dep/semitic/maamad.html (Hebrew text) http://spinoza.tau.ac.il/hci/dep/semitic/maamad.html (English text) ************************************************** Benjamin Hary, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Hebrew, Arabic and Linguistics AT Tel Aviv University for Spring 2001: 50 Dizengoff Street, Apt 1906 IL-64332 Tel Aviv, Israel Tel/Fax: 011-972-3-528-0423; Mobile: 011-972-58-805636 **************************************************

March 2001

Date: Mon, 26 Feb 2001 14:01 
From: Hayim Sheynin <user @ gratz.cncdsl.com> 
Subject: Software program for writing dictionaries and concordances

To the members of the list. Are any of you aware of existence of a computer program for writing dictionaries and concordances? If such programs exist, please give short information about the program and how it is possible to get one. Sincerely, Dr. Hayim Y. Sheynin Gratz College Library Please do not reply. Email to: hsheynin @ gratz.edu

Date: Thu, 1 Mar 2001 08:52 
From: Hayim Sheynin <hsheynin @ gratz.edu> 
Subject: Fw: Software program for writing dictionaries and concordances

To the members of this list. I like to express my thanks to all the members who answered my question on software for compiling dictionaries and concordances. I received a half dozen answers. Now I have some leads toward the solution of my problems. I like to thank especially Seth Jerchower, W.F. Weigel, Prof. Gideon Goldenberg, Prof. Yaakov Bentolila, David Argoff, and I. Dan Melamed. Happy and joyful Purim to all of you. Dr. Hayim Y. Sheynin Gratz College Melrose Park, PA Here are some of the answers. Dear Hayim, Here are several links, as promised. I still think that "Concordance" may be the best program available for the actual generation of concordances, and is by far easier to use and set up than most others. The URLs are as follows: http://www.rjcw.freeserve.co.uk/ "Concordance" Version 2.0.0 (30 day trial version). http://www.emich.edu/~linguist/software.html The Linguist List: software for ling http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/ "LinguaLinks Software" http://www.liv.ac.uk/~ms2928/wordsmith/screenshots/ "Wordsmith" Nonetheless, the combined power of Access/Office 2000 and Win98 or 2000 (again NOT ME), is formidable. Should you opt for this and would like help in setting it up, please feel free to call on me. Best regards, Seth Dear Dr. Sheynin- There is a program (for both Windows and Macintosh) called 'Shoebox' or 'The Linguist's Shoebox' that is used by a number of linguists here at Berkeley. It is produced by SIL (the Summer Institute of Linguistics, a sort of missionary organization) and used to be available for free download, but I have heard that they are now charging for it. The site is www.sil.org <HTTP: www.sil.org>. Earlier (free) versions should be downloadable from other websites. I have not personally used this program, but my understanding is that it is a sort of database for storing both individual lexical items and texts, and that it can be used to general wordlists, dictionaries, concordances, etc. It is supposed to replace the old-fashioned linguists shoebox full of file slips. I hope this helps. -W.F. Weigel > From I. Dan Melamed Thanks for the clarification. Unfortunately, the question is outside my scope of expertise. I study automatic creation of dictionaries for use *by computers*. You seek something human-readable, which is quite a different enterprise. Discussion of relevant topics is often found on the corpora list. See http://www.hit.uib.no/corpora/welcome.txt . If you don't find anything useful in the archives, you will at least find contact info for people who know more about this than I. Good luck, IDM > From Prof. Gideon Goldenberg Dear Hayim Sheynin, "conc" - Concordance Generating Program, is light, fast and very powerful. It makes a concordance of even large files in about one second. This I can say of the 1993 version; I do not know about late versions. It used to be distributed for free. The copyright belongs to the Summer Institute of Linguistics, 7500 West Camp Wisdom Road, Dallas, Texas, U.S.A. They should know more about it. Best wishes, Gideon Goldenberg > From Prof. Yaakov Bentolila Shalom Hayim, There is a very good program for language analysis processing, and you can find it in the following URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/catalog Its name: Lingualinks Workshop (windows only) They have other efficient programs too, for example "Shoebox" (windows and Mac). You will see if you take a look. Good luck Prof. Yaakov Bentolila Hebrew Language Department Ben-Gurion University of the Negev

Date: Thu, 08 Mar 2001 12:57 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Jewish Language Research Website

Call for Jewish language scholars' information for a new website to be launched by May 2001: Jewish Language Research Website This website will be a resource for anyone interested in researching or learning about languages of the Jews (including various forms of Hebrew). It will include names of scholars, their research interests, papers and books they have written, and their contact information. If you are interested in being listed on this website, please send the following information to Sarah Bunin Benor (sbenor @ stanford.edu ) by March 30, 2001. Name (family name, first name) Academic Affiliation Country E-mail Address (optional) Your Website URL (optional) Area(s) and Language(s) of Interest, listed with books and/or papers (published or unpublished) that you've written in those areas, starting from most recent An example would be as follows: -------- Name: Benor, Sarah Bunin Academic Affiliation: Stanford University Country: United States E-mail Address: sbenor @ stanford.edu My Website URL: ----- Areas of Interest w/papers written: Sociolinguistics 1. Benor, S.B. In press. "Sounding Learned: The Gendered Use of /t/ in Orthodox Jewish English." Penn Working Papers in Linguistics: Selected papers from NWAV 2000. American Jewish English 1. Benor, S. 2000. "Loan Words in the English of Modern Orthodox Jews: Yiddish or Hebrew?" In S. Chang et al, eds., Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, 1999. Parasession on Loan Word Phenomena. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society. 287-298. 2. Benor, S.B. 1999. "Language Ideologies in a California Chabad Community." Presented at Association for Jewish Studies 31st Annual Meeting. Chicago. Yiddish 1. Benor, S.B. Manuscript. "Hebrew-Derived Verbs in Yiddish." Ladino/Judezmo/Judeo-Spanish 1. Benor, S.B. 2000. "Jew and 'Other' in Judezmo: How Ottoman Sephardic Jews Distinguish Non-Jews." Presented at Misgav Yerushalayim's conference on Languages of Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews. Jerusalem, June 2000. Jewish Languages / Comparative Jewish Linguistics Language Contact ---------- Area(s) of interest might include: Biblical Hebrew, Mishnaic Hebrew, Medieval Hebrew, Modern Hebrew, Yiddish (Eastern or Western), Ladino/Judezmo/Judeo-Spanish, Hakitia, Judeo-Arabic (Moroccan, Yemenite...), Judeo-Aramaic (old or new), Judeo-Greek (old or new), Judeo-Persian (old or new), Judeo-Tadjik, Judeo-Tat, Judeo-Italian, Judeo-Portuguese, Judeo-Catalan, Judeo-Malayalam, Judeo-Provencale, Judeo-French, Jewish English... comparative Jewish linguistics, sociolinguistics, language contact, language change, language variation, phonology, morphology, semantics, syntax, discourse, pragmatics, genre, oral Hebrew/Aramaic traditions, ethnography of communication, ethnic language varieties, language and education... Books and papers should be listed in the following format (with no italics or hanging indents): Weinreich, M. 1953. "Yidishkayt and Yiddish: On the Impact of Religion on Language in Ashkenazic Jewry." In M. Davis, ed., Mordecai M. Kaplan Jubilee Volume. New York: Jewish Theological Seminary. 481-514. Please send your entries within the body of the message, without any special formatting (just text). If you would like to list any works in non-Latin letters, please send your entries as attachements in Word 2000. Please forward this message to anyone who might be interested, and spread the word to any scholars who don't have e-mail (and ask them to send their information through someone who does have e-mail). Please send all communication regarding the website to Sarah (sbenor @ stanford.edu). When the website opens, an announcement will be posted to this list. Coordinated by: Sarah Bunin Benor, Stanford University, USA with technical assistance from Tsuguya Sasaki, Osaka University of Foreign Studies, Japan

Date: Thu, 08 Mar 2001 13:50 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: AJS call

The Association for Jewish Studies has posted its call for papers for the conference this December. Abstracts are now due March 29, so there's still time to send in proposals for panels or individual papers. The language section's suggested themes for this year are: Language and Modernity Language Contact and Language Choice The Acquisition of Jewish Languages Translation and the Cultural Canon But you can also submit papers and panels on other themes. You can see the call for papers, which has all the info you'll need, at: http://www.brandeis.edu/ajs/2001AJS33.html Also, if anyone is interested in submitting papers for a panel on language and identity or language and gender, please let me know. -Sarah

Date: Mon, 26 Mar 2001 12:53 
From: Hayim Sheynin <user @ gratz.cncdsl.com> 
Subject: Fw: Another theory on Daven

Recently one of reference librarians published on Association of Jewish Libraries Bulletin Board "Hasafran" a query on the etymology of the Yiddish daven or davenen (to pray). Since this etymology is not widely known can anyone with authority to examine the following answers. DO NOT CLICK "REPLY." ALL MESSAGES MUST BE ADDRESSED TO: hsheynin @ gratz.edu Dr. Hayim Y. Sheynin Head of Reference Services Tuttleman Library of Gratz College 7605 Old York Rd. Melrose Park, PA 19027 tel. 215 635-7300, ext. 161 fax: 215 635-7320 e-mail: hsheynin @ gratz.edu ================================================================ Dear Michelle et al, Daven may be a corruption of the Aramaic word "de'avuhon" which means "of the Patriarchs," an allusion to the gemara (Berachos 26b) which says that the shemona esrei prayers were instituted by Avrohom, Yitzchok, and Yaakov. I have also heard that it is a form of an early German word related to the English "dawn." Another theory on Daven To Daven may come from Old French, in which case it is related to the English word "devotion", and entered Jewish vocabulary by way of Rashi (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki, the medieval French Torah commentator). Alan Cohen Librarian The Sephardi Education Resource Centre Sephardi Association of Victoria Inc. 79 Hotham Street East St.Kilda. VIC. 3183 Australia Ph: +613 9527 2943 Fax: +613 9521 1083 email: alanlc @ alphalink.com.au

Date: Mon, 26 Mar 2001 16:42 
From: Laura Minervini <lrminer @ unina.it> 
Subject: [Introduction]

My name is Laura Minervini, I am associate professor of Romance Linguistics and Philology at the University of Naples. I am interested in Judeo-Romance languages, especially in Judeo-Spanish. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Laura Minervini Dipartimento di Filologia Moderna Università di Napoli Federico II Via Porta di Massa 1 I-80133 Napoli Tel.: +39-081-2535539 Fax: +39-081-5527511 E-mail: lrminer @ unina.it

Date: Mon, 26 Mar 2001 07:05 
From: Hayim Sheynin <user @ gratz.cncdsl.com> 
Subject: Fw: Another theory on Daven

I received quite a number of answers on my posting on etymology of Yiddish daven, davenen (to say prayers) and feel myself obligated to post them for all the members. Part of the answers came from the members of this list, while the rest is from Hasafran. I am pretty sure that catenae of answers will continue to arrive. Please do not hold me accountable if I stop to forward additional answers. But anyone who is interested can email to hsheynin @ gratz.edu, and I'll be happy to forward the email received. Happy Passover, DO NOT CLICK "REPLY." ALL MESSAGES MUST BE ADDRESSED TO: hsheynin @ gratz.edu Dr. Hayim Y. Sheynin Head of Reference Services Tuttleman Library of Gratz College 7605 Old York Rd. Melrose Park, PA 19027 tel. 215 635-7300, ext. 161 fax: 215 635-7320 e-mail: hsheynin @ gratz.edu ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----Original Message----- From: mherzog @ bestweb.net Sent: Monday, March 26, 2001 3:00 PM To: hsheynin @ gratz.edu Subject: your query about _dav(e)nen_ The etymologies you cite are no more reliable than numerous others that this word has inspired. For a discussion of this matter, see Page 216 and accompanying Map(#83)of variants, in: _The Language and Culture Atlas of Ashkenazic Jewry_, Volume III: "The Eastern Yiddish--Western Yiddish Continuum", Max Niemeyer Verlag, Tuebingen 2000. Mikhl Herzog ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Dear Dr. Sheynin, So as not to make you sorry you asked, I'll answer VERY briefly. The etymology of Yiddish "davnen" 'say the prayers' (not the same as 'pray'!) is not known. There have been about two dozen proposed etymologies (if you would like bibliographical references, I would be happy to supply them); unfortunately, none of them are convincing. Sorry to disappoint! We continue to await the bolt of lightning that will illuminate the origin of this word... Incidentally, the Aramaic etymology I have seen is not "de'avuhon" , but "davinan"; the French etymology not "devotion," but "divin(e)." I'm always interested to hear about etymology in general and Yiddish etymology in particular, so please keep in touch! All the best, Paul G. * * * Dr. Paul (Hershl) Glasser > Associate Dean, Max Weinreich Center Senior Research Associate, Yiddish Language YIVO Institute for Jewish Research 15 West 16 Street New York, New York --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Dear Professor Sheynin, Have you heard the theory that Davenen is from Turkish? A friend of mine, Daisy Sadaka Braverman, from Izmir, is sure that the word is Turkish. Best, George Jochnowitz

April 2001

Date: Mon, 09 Apr 2001 13:37 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: AJS panel on Language and Identity

Hello. Jill Kushner and I are organizing a panel on Contemporary Jewish Languages and Identity for AJS '01. We're still looking for 1 or 2 more papers on this theme (abstracts are due next Thursday). If you're working on a contemporary Jewish language and would like to present your work in Washington DC this December, please contact me immediately. Thanks, Sarah Bunin Benor

Date: Wed, 18 Apr 2001 11:43 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: extension - Jewish Language Research Website

The Jewish Language Research Website has extended the deadline for scholars to send their information. If you send your info by April 29, you can still be included in this database of researchers. See details below. ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Call for Jewish language scholars' information for a new website to be launched by May 2001: Jewish Language Research Website This website will be a resource for anyone interested in researching or learning about languages of the Jews (including various forms of Hebrew). It will include names of scholars, their research interests, papers and books they have written, and their contact information. If you are interested in being listed on this website, please send the following information to Sarah Bunin Benor (sbenor @ stanford.edu) by April 29, 2001. Name (family name, first name) Academic Affiliation Country E-mail Address (optional) Your Website URL (optional) Area(s) and Language(s) of Interest, listed with books and/or papers (published or unpublished) that you've written in those areas, starting from most recent Area(s) of interest might include: Biblical Hebrew, Mishnaic Hebrew, Medieval Hebrew, Modern Hebrew, Yiddish (Eastern or Western), Ladino/Judezmo/Judeo-Spanish, Hakitia, Judeo-Arabic (Moroccan, Yemenite...), Judeo-Aramaic (old or new), Judeo-Greek (old or new), Judeo-Persian (old or new), Judeo-Tadjik, Judeo-Tat, Judeo-Italian, Judeo-Portuguese, Judeo-Catalan, Judeo-Malayalam, Judeo-Provencale, Judeo-French, Jewish English... comparative Jewish linguistics, sociolinguistics, language contact, language change, language variation, phonology, morphology, semantics, syntax, discourse, pragmatics, genre, oral Hebrew/Aramaic traditions, ethnography of communication, ethnic language varieties, language and education... Books and papers should be listed in the following format (with no italics or hanging indents): Weinreich, M. 1953. "Yidishkayt and Yiddish: On the Impact of Religion on Language in Ashkenazic Jewry." In M. Davis, ed., Mordecai M. Kaplan Jubilee Volume. New York: Jewish Theological Seminary. 481-514. Please send your entries within the body of the message, without any special formatting (just text). If you would like to list any works in non-Latin letters, please send your entries as attachements in Word 2000. Please forward this message to anyone who might be interested, and spread the word to any scholars who don't have e-mail (and ask them to send their information through someone who does have e-mail). Please send all communication regarding the website to Sarah (sbenor @ stanford.edu). When the website opens, an announcement will be posted to this list. Coordinated by: Sarah Bunin Benor, Stanford University, USA with technical assistance from Tsuguya Sasaki, Osaka University of Foreign Studies, Japan Here is an example of a posting -------- Name: Benor, Sarah Bunin Academic Affiliation: Stanford University Country: United States E-mail Address: sbenor @ stanford.edu My Website URL: ----- Areas of Interest w/papers written: Sociolinguistics 1. Benor, S.B. In press. "Sounding Learned: The Gendered Use of /t/ in Orthodox Jewish English." Penn Working Papers in Linguistics: Selected papers from NWAV 2000. American Jewish English 1. Benor, S. 2000. "Loan Words in the English of Modern Orthodox Jews: Yiddish or Hebrew?" In S. Chang et al, eds., Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, 1999. Parasession on Loan Word Phenomena. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society. 287-298. 2. Benor, S.B. 1999. "Language Ideologies in a California Chabad Community." Presented at Association for Jewish Studies 31st Annual Meeting. Chicago. Yiddish 1. Benor, S.B. Manuscript. "Hebrew-Derived Verbs in Yiddish." Ladino/Judezmo/Judeo-Spanish 1. Benor, S.B. 2000. "Jew and 'Other' in Judezmo: How Ottoman Sephardic Jews Distinguish Non-Jews." Presented at Misgav Yerushalayim's conference on Languages of Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews. Jerusalem, June 2000. Jewish Languages / Comparative Jewish Linguistics Language Contact

From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Date: Friday, 27 April 2001 11:37 
Subject: Novedades editoriales (fwd)

Message from Tirocinio S.L. -------------------------- TIROCINIO S.L. C/ dels Cavallers 56, 1º 1ª, 08034 BARCELONA Tel. / Fax: 34 (93) 204 26 20 Nos es grato comunicarles la publicación del cuarto volumen de nuestra colección FUENTE CLARA, ESTUDIOS DE CULTURA SEFARDÍ: Pilar ROMEU FERRÉ, ed., Los dos mellizos (Novela en lengua sefardí), [Edición del texto aljamiado, estudio introductorio y glosario de Pilar Romeu. Prólogo de Paloma Díaz-Mas]. Barcelona, 2001. 200 págs., ilust. (14,5 x 21 cm.). ISBN 84-930570-2-9 PVP 40 $ + gastos de envío. Interesados dirigirse a: Tirocinio @ retemail.es La novela Los dos mellizos fue publicada dos veces en un breve espacio de tiempo aljamiada en lengua sefardí: en forma de folletín en el periódico El Avenir de Salónica (1907) y en forma de libro en Jerusalén (1908). La edición de Pilar Romeu reproduce esta última, transcrita en caracteres latinos. Con la tolerancia religiosa como motivo de fondo, la novela recrea las vicisitudes de los judíos centroeuropeos en el siglo XIX y de ella pueden extraerse multitud de datos que redundan en un mejor conocimiento del universo cultural judío, tanto de la época que describe la novela como del de la publicación en lengua sefardí. 1907-1908 fue una época de gran-des cambios socio-políticos en los países bajo el dominio otomano, equiparables a los que ocurrieron a mediados del siglo XIX en el centro de Europa. A través de los mellizos educados en diferente religión, se plantean algunos de los problemas que más vivamente acuciaban al mundo judío de la época, que trataba de salir de los guetos y del reducido mundo religioso-familiar en que se veía tradicionalmente envuelto: la cuestión de la asimilación y la necesaria tolerancia en aras a una convivencia en paz con el mundo gentil. Un tema de creciente actualidad. En palabras de la Dra. Díaz-Mas, Los dos mellizos se nos presenta: «como un manifiesto por la tolerancia mutua y la convivencia en paz, que quizás tenga más adeptos hoy que en el momento en que se escribió y se publicó».

Date: Sun, 29 Apr 2001 15:38 
From: Ofra Tirosh-Becker <otirosh @ h2.hum.huji.ac.il> 
Subject: Information about The Center for the Study of Jewish Languages and Literatures at the Hebrew University

Dear colleagues, I would like to introduce The Center for the Study of Jewish Languages and Literatures at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem to scholars working in this filed. Sincerely Yours, Ofra Tirosh-Becker ------------------- Title: The Center for the Study of Jewish Languages and Literatures Academic Institution: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Director: Prof. Moshe Bar-Asher Chairperson of Academic Committee: Prof. Gideon Goldenberg Academic Coordinator: Dr. Ofra Tirosh-Becker Goal: The main goal of the Center is to advance the study and research of Jewish languages and of the literatures written (or orally transmitted) in these languages. The Center aims to promote comparative research between different Jewish languages and the study of the contact between Jewish languages and Hebrew. Activities: The Center encourages scientific activity by organizing research seminars and inter-university and international scientific conferences. For the last 15 years the Center has been organizing a Jewish Languages and Literatures Lecture Series, consisting of three to four lectures each academic year. Until now fifty five lectures were given in this Series by experts from Israel and abroad. The lectures addressed a variety of Jewish languages: Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Spanish (Ladino, Judezmo, Hakitiya), Yiddish, Judeo-Italian, Judeo-French, Judeo-Provencal, Judeo-Aramaic, Judeo-Persian as well as lectures on comparative Jewish Linguistics. Publications: The Center for the Study of Jewish Languages and Literatures, together with the Jewish Oral Traditions Research Center, publishes the journal "Massorot: Studies in Language Traditions and Jewish Languages". Eleven volumes of "Massorot" have been published so far (in seven books). The Center also publishes books in the field of Jewish languages and literatures (often in cooperation with other institutions). Teaching: The Center promotes the teaching of Jewish languages at the Hebrew University through the Unit for the Teaching of Jewish Languages and Literatures", both on an undergraduate level and on the graduate level. Undergraduate students may choose a minor concentration in Jewish Languages and literatures focusing on Judeo-Spanish, Judeo-Arabic or Yiddish. Graduate students may choose an individually designed Masters program in Jewish Languages and Literatures focusing on one or more Jewish Languages. Three Ph.D. theses and five M.A. theses have been written so far under the auspices of the Center. Several more Ph.D. and M.A. theses are currently in progress. Contact Information: Dr. Ofra Tirosh-Becker Department of Hebrew Language & The Center for the Study of Jewish Languages and Literatures The Hebrew University Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel Phone: (972) 02-588-3558 (Department) Fax: (972) 02-588-1206 (Department) e-mail: otirosh @ h2.hum.huji.ac.il

May 2001

Date: Thu, 10 May 2001 11:05 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Sephardic-Mizrachi list

Hello, Jewish language list. This is a message to inform you about the Association for Jewish Studies Sephardi/Mizrahi Studies Caucus Discussion List, moderated by Aviva Ben-Ur, University of Massachusetts (Amherst). There are often messages about language, and the most recent edition included the message below, which might be of interest to you. If you'd like to be added to the list, you can contact Aviva Ben-Ur aben-ur @ judnea.umass.edu. ------------ 3. Ladino Lives on the Internet (Amado Bortnick) From: Rachel Amado Bortnick, RABortnic @ aol.com Date: Tuesday, May 1, 2001 Ladino is alive and well in LADINOKOMUNITA, a virtual community made up of Ladino-speakers from all over the world, (access through http://www.sephardichouse.org/komunita.html.) Since its inception in January, 2000, this Internet list has grown steadily and has at present over 300 members who discuss daily whatever is on their mind by writing messages in Ladino (Judeo-espanyol) only. The number of messages received daily varies, but is most often in the 8-15 range. Subjects are often on recollections of Sephardic life or our language, on history and any other matter of concern to the writer, or of Sephardic, Jewish or other interest in general. The Sephardic House-linked page indicated above also has many new original stories and poems in Ladino. Everyone who wishes to use, recall, or improve his Ladino is invited to join the group. Membership is free, and is accomplished by either going to: http://www.sephardichouse.org/komunita.html and clicking the "Abonarvos aki" (Subscribe here) area, or by going to http://www.yahoogroups.com/subscribe/Ladinokomunita

Date: Sun, 13 May 2001 10:33 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Languages of Jewish Texts (fwd)

This is from H-Judaic, the Jewish Studies list. You can get information about it at http://www2.h-net.msu.edu/~judaic/ -Sarah ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Sun, 13 May 2001 00:15:59 -0300 From: Automatic digest processor LISTSERV @ H-NET.MSU.EDU Reply-To: H-NET Jewish Studies List H-JUDAIC @ H-NET.MSU.EDU To: Recipients of H-JUDAIC digests H-JUDAIC @ H-NET.MSU.EDU Subject: H-JUDAIC Digest - 10 May 2001 to 12 May 2001 (#2001-83) There are 4 messages totalling 89 lines in this issue. Topics of the day: 1. Languages for Jewish Texts (Kaufman) ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Sat, 12 May 2001 21:53:35 -0400 From: "Faydra L. Shapiro" hjmod @ oise.utoronto.ca Subject: Languages for Jewish Texts (Kaufman) From: David Kaufmann kaufmann @ tulane.edu Subject: Languages I have a general question: What languages, besides Hebrew of course, were considered "worthy" to be used for critical (major) works of Jewish thought - texts with kedushah (holiness), so to speak. For instance, Aramaic was so used in the Talmudic period, but not afterward. At the same time period, although there are many Greek loan words in the Talmud, as far as I know the only "mainstream" work in Greek is Philo. (And it might well be argued that he wasn't mainstream, at least for his time.) Arabic served as the language of philosophy/theology (i.e., R. Saadya Gaon, Rambam, etc.) but not law or literature (R. Yehuda HaLevi and company wrote their poetry in Hebrew). Can it be said Arabic supplanted Aramaic for a certain type of work? As far as I know, there was no comparable Ashkenazi use of the vernacular, at least until the 19th century, when R. S.R. Hirsch used German and some (but not most) of the Chassidic works were in Yiddish. Very few, if any, comparable works written first in English come to mind. Perhaps Yiddish comes closest to the role of "alternative" or "philosopher's" language. Neither German or English seemed to have "taken over." (I wouldn't count thinkers such as Buber here, simply because the philosophy is not specifically Jewish, although obviously highly dependent on Jewish thought.) So, is it only Aramaic in the Talmudic period and Arabic in the period following (and perhaps Yiddish in the last couple hundred years)? Are there any exceptions? ------------------------------ End of H-JUDAIC Digest - 10 May 2001 to 12 May 2001 (#2001-83)

Date: Thu, 17 May 2001 09:54 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: more from H-JUDAIC

I thought you'd be interested in seeing the responses to the question about Jewish languages, some of which were posted by members of our list: ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Thu, 17 May 2001 00:25:15 -0300 From: Automatic digest processor <LISTSERV @ H-NET.MSU.EDU> Reply-To: H-NET Jewish Studies List <H-JUDAIC @ H-NET.MSU.EDU> To: Recipients of H-JUDAIC digests <H-JUDAIC @ H-NET.MSU.EDU> Subject: H-JUDAIC Digest - 12 May 2001 to 16 May 2001 (#2001-84) There are 8 messages totalling 303 lines in this issue. Topics of the day: 1. Languages for Jewish Texts (Cohen) 2. Languages for Jewish Texts (Roth) 3. Languages (Aronson) 4. Languages (Sheynin) 5. Languages (Lesses) 6. Languages (Lesley) 7. Languages (Student) 8. Languages (Peterson) ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Wed, 16 May 2001 19:29:34 -0400 From: "Faydra L. Shapiro" <HJMOD @ OISE.UTORONTO.CA> Subject: Languages for Jewish Texts (Cohen) From: Aryeh Cohen <ARYEH @ UJ.EDU> Subject: Re: languages Well, its an open question as to what you mean by texts with Kedusha, but the Zohar was written in a "dialect" of Aramaic; various Rishonim wrote their commentaries in pretty straightforward Aramaic (i.e. Yad Ramah, R. Meir Halevi Abulafiah 12-13th cent. Spain); Iggeret Rav Sherira' Gaon was in Aramaic; Halakhot of Alfasi was in Aramaic; most Rishonim wrote in a "rabbinic Hebrew" which was a mixture of Hebrew and Aramaic. -- Dr. Aryeh Cohen University of Judaism ------------------------------ Date: Wed, 16 May 2001 19:31:28 -0400 From: "Faydra L. Shapiro" <HJMOD @ OISE.UTORONTO.CA> Subject: Languages for Jewish Texts (Roth) From: Norman Roth <NDROTH @ FACSTAFF.WISC.EDU> Subject: languages In response to David Kaufmann's question about languages; first, Aramaic did not entirely cease with the talmudic period. Commentaries on the Talmud and even responsa and other legal works are often (one might say usually) a mixture of Aramaic and Hebrew, and of course the Zohar was written (by Moses de Leon in the thirteenth century) entirely in Aramaic. Arabic was used not only for poetry, philosophical and scientific writing but also for legal compositions. In fact, all of the responsa of the geonim, as well as their legal works, were in Arabic and later translated in Hebrew. Maimonides, of course, wrote everything in Arabic except for the Mishneh Torah. Also in early medieval Spain a great deal of commentary, responsa, etc. was in Arabic. As for Greek, it is true that no works are known to have been written, but there are Greek glosses, etc. in later writings, particularly from Sicily and the Byzantine empire. The same is true for French and some Italian. There are some German poetic works, etc. from the medieval period. Of course in the modern era not only these languages but also Ladino (Spanish written in Hebrew letters), and of course English. Norman Roth Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (retired) ------------------------------ Date: Wed, 16 May 2001 19:32:40 -0400 From: "Faydra L. Shapiro" <HJMOD @ OISE.UTORONTO.CA> Subject: Languages (Aronson) From: hia5 @ midway.uchicago.edu Subject: languages Actually, Arabic was used for halachic literature by the Karaites; e.g., al-Qirqisani's Kitab al-anwar wal-maraqib, the "Code of Karaite law." (I should add that I read about this work; I don't know Arabic at all.) Howard I. Aronson University of Chicago ------------------------------ Date: Wed, 16 May 2001 19:33:38 -0400 From: "Faydra L. Shapiro" hjmod @ oise.utoronto.ca Subject: Languages (Sheynin) From: Hayim Sheynin <USER @ GRATZ.CNCDSL.COM> Subject: Languages for Jewish Texts Yes, there were some exceptions. Besides a big number of translations of the bible and Haggadah shel Pesah, there were a number of other important works in many Jewish languages, just for example I can cite the works of Flavius Josephus in Greek, the poem on Exodudus by a Greek poet Ezekiel (Hellenistic period), a number of other Jewish historical works (which are preserved mostly in fragments); the Aramaic works found among the Dead Sea Scrolls, e.g. Genesis Apocryphon. In ca. 13th-14th cent. Rabbi Moshe de Leon compiled Zohar in Aramaic (traditionally ascribed to Shimon bar Yochai), there were prayers and piyutim in Eretz Israel compiled in Aramaic. When liturgy turned to Hebrew versions, many of them were forgotten, recently some of them were edited by Joseph Yahalom and Michael Sokoloff. It is difficult to describe the wealth of Judeo-Arabic works on religious and scholarly subjects. From Saadya Gaon in 10th cent. to 15th century thousands scholarly works were written in this language. In addition, I can mention such works as Tse'enah urenah in Yiddish (which was the popular work mostly studied by women) and Me`am Loez in Ladino that was studied by men in Judeo-Spanish society. Yemeni Jews possess a number of works composed in Arabic, the same is possible to say on Tunisian Jews. Iranian Jews have a number of important Torah study works and poems in Judeo-Persian. The folklore of the majority of Jewish ethnic groups was composed in Jewish languages, from Iraqi proverbs and songs to Spanish romances and Yiddish folk songs. So even most of the Jewish languages do not possess such an elevated status as Hebrew, the works in many of these languages are worthy of study. Moreover the process of formation and development of these languages contributes a lot to the cultural history. Dr. Hayim Y. Sheynin, Gratz College ------------------------------ Date: Wed, 16 May 2001 19:34:23 -0400 From: "Faydra L. Shapiro" <HJMOD @ OISE.UTORONTO.CA> Subject: Languages (Lesses) From: Rebecca Lesses <RLESSES @ BUCKNELL.EDU> Subject: Languages for Jewish texts Aramaic was used as a language for some halakhic works during the Geonic period, and of course the Zohar was written in Aramaic in the 13th century. The Rambam's commentary on the Mishnah was written in Arabic. Sa'adyah Gaon also wrote an Arabic translation of the Tanakh and an Arabic commentary on Tanakh. Rebecca Lesses Bucknell University ------------------------------ Date: Wed, 16 May 2001 19:36:33 -0400 From: "Faydra L. Shapiro" <HJMOD @ OISE.UTORONTO.CA> Subject: Languages (Lesley) From: Arthur Lesley <LESLEY @ BHU.EDU> Subject: languages David Kaufman raises large questions about Jewish languages and literatures, but some terms of the discussion and his tentative conclusions deserve further work. "Mainstream" and "major" are concepts that, not only for the long periods of isolated Jewish diasporas, need refinement. Later authorities decide what earlier was major--we investigate how. "Mainstream" is a historical evaluation that also depends greatly on the time and place, values and identity of the definer, even more than of the writer. It is hard to define a single mainstream of Judaism in any useful way, although some of us Ashkenazim have thought of ourselves as "the mainstream" for a while now. Others would substitute another word, "provincial." "Kedusha" also is not an adequate criterion, and not only when philosophy is considered. Aramaic, sometimes called the "language of the Yerushalmi," was used for the pseudepigraphic Zoharic writings--that is, for a different function and audience-- many hundreds of years after Aramaic went out of use, for most Jews, for purposes other than Talmud study. Arabic did not so much replace Aramaic for certain functions as it necessitated and made possible the performance of new functions: being for Jews, as for others, a language of new kinds of "science" and new kinds of literature--such as the Kuzari and new kinds of poetry. Hebrew adopted some of these new functions where Arabic was not dominant. Arabic remained a learned language for Jews in many places outside of Europe for a long time. There were prayers, poems, songs, stories, in Jewish texts, and often distinct dialects of other languages, too: Greek, Persian, Provencal, Italian, Spanish, Judeo-Spanish, Malayalam, Berber(?) et al. These questions have been discussed by experts on Jewish languages and by experts on particular Jewish communities. Encyclopedia articles could be good places to start, as would general histories of particular diasporas. David Aberbach's recent book, Revolutionary Hebrew, Empire and Crisis : Four Peaks in Hebrew Literature and Jewish Survival, grappled with some of these questions over several periods and provoked more thought, rather than settling matters. As on many topics, one can be sure only of the need to refine the terms of our questions. Hope this helps the discussion. Arthur Lesley Baltimore Hebrew University ------------------------------ Date: Wed, 16 May 2001 19:37:33 -0400 From: "Faydra L. Shapiro" <HJMOD @ OISE.UTORONTO.CA> Subject: Languages (Student) From: gil.student @ citicorp.com Subject: Languages for Jewish Texts Arabic was used for much more than just philosophy and theology. The Rambam wrote a commentary on the Mishnah in Arabic as well as all of his responsa. English has already become a language for new halakhic material. Indignant judgementalism aside, Artscroll has been nurturing an Enligsh halakhic literature that is starting to come of its own. There have been original and quality works written in English for over a decade. Off the top of my head, R. Simcha Bunim Cohen has written a number of original halakhic works for Artscroll. There is a recently published book called The 39 Melachos by R. David Ribiat that has become an instant classic. Also, the Artscroll gemara commentary is currently being translated FROM English INTO Hebrew. In terms of a "philosopher's language", you must take into account that in the past two centuries we have added a category that did not exist in medieval times - the academic scholar. Perhaps philosopher is the closest analogy. In academic scholarship, German was at one time the main language and that has been supplanted by both English and Hebrew. There is very little serious Jewish academic scholarship that was not written in either German, English, or Hebrew. Gil Student ------------------------------ Date: Wed, 16 May 2001 19:39:55 -0400 From: "Faydra L. Shapiro" <HJMOD @ OISE.UTORONTO.CA> Subject: Languages (Peterson) From: Sigrid Peterson <PETERSIG @ CCAT.SAS.UPENN.EDU> Subject: Other Jewish Languages Your general question raises many questions of its own. First, "considered worthy" by whom? What are "critical (major) works of Jewish thought, and how are they defined? And what does a text need to be, in order to have kedushah? My own answers are related to definitions, assumptions, discoveries, and questions arising from my dissertation research on a Syriac Jewish Rhymed Liturgical Text of the Maccabean Martyrdoms. (The Introduction is online at http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~petersig/chapter1.htm ) Since this text presents non-rabbinic Early Jewish thought regarding the life of the world to come, and the necessity of following God's Law at the cost of one's life, it could be described as a work of Jewish thought, though if only rabbinic discussion of the Mishna (and perhaps the Tosefta) qualifies as Jewish thought in Early Judaism (by definition) then of course it is not a work of Jewish thought. That an annual celebration of the Maccabean martyrdoms required some textual accompaniment seems fairly clear from the number of such texts that have survived in a number of languages; is this not an occasion of kedusha (holiness)?. The most obviously philosophical version is that of Fourth Maccabees, with its numerous rhetorical interludes that propound a variant of Hellenistic Stoic philosophy. It is included in three of the Codices of the LXX/OG. The Greek Wisdom of Solomon is a philosophical treatise on the pursuit of Wisdom/wisdom, in language somewhat similar to that of Fourth Maccabees, also in the LXX/OG defining codices. They are both represented in the Syriac Peshitta, as well. Returning to Syriac, while the Psalms of Solomon, with texts in Syriac and in Greek, are not precisely philosophical or theological in tenor, a case can be made for their adaptation to/ derivation from Jewish liturgical practice, and thus their kedusha (holiness). > (R. Yehuda HaLevi and company wrote their poetry in Hebrew). But there was also Jewish poetry (piyyutim) written in Aramaic: see Michael Sokoloff and Josef Yahalom, Shirat bene ma'arava: shirim Aramiyim shel yehude Erets-Yi'sra'el ba-tekufah ha-Bisantit, (Jewish Palestinian Aramaic Poetry of Late Antiquity) [Hebrew and Aramaic, with English summary], Jerusalem, 1999. There is also the A. S. Rodriguez Pereira book, Studies in Aramaic poetry (c. 100 B.C.E.-c.600 C.E.) : selected Jewish, Christian and Samaritan poems (1997), Assen, NL: 1997. > So, is it only Aramaic in the Talmudic period and Arabic in the period > following (and perhaps Yiddish in the last couple hundred years)? Are there > any exceptions? Also, regarding more recent Jewish philosophy, I would expect you to find many who valued as Jewish thought the German contributions of Moses Mendelssohn and the Haskala, and found Yiddish material mostly of a less philosophical vein, as one article's memorable title put it, "For Women and Men Who Are Like Women"--taken from the title page of a Yiddish work, Tsena U Renna, as I recall. Sigrid Peterson University of Pennsylvania petersig @ ccat.sas.upenn.edu ------------------------------ End of H-JUDAIC Digest - 12 May 2001 to 16 May 2001 (#2001-84) **************************************************************

June 2001

Date: Sun, 24 Jun 2001 05:32 
From: Tsuguya Sasaki <tsuguya @ gol.com> 
Subject: Program of the 13th World Congress of Jewish Studies

You may be interested to know that the program of the 13th World Congress of Jewish Studies is available now online (only in Hebrew in the meanwhile). Table of Contents: http://www.jewish-studies.org/hebrew/congress.html Hebrew and Jewish languages other than Yiddish and Judezmo: http://www.jewish-studies.org/hebrew/congress/8.htm Yiddish: http://www.jewish-studies.org/hebrew/congress/9.htm Judezmo: http://www.jewish-studies.org/hebrew/congress/10.htm List of Participants: http://www.jewish-studies.org/hebrew/congress/21.htm ---------------------------------------------------------------- Tsuguya Sasaki E-mail: tsuguya @ gol.com WWW: http://www2.gol.com/users/tsuguya/ ----------------------------------------------------------------

July 2001

Date: Tue, 03 Jul 2001 12:49 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Jewish Language Research Website

Tsuguya Sasaki and I are pleased to announce that the Jewish Language Research Website is up and running: http://www.stanford.edu/dept/linguistics/jewish/ It's still in draft form, and as you can see there are a number of holes. We're still missing info and bibliographies from many people on this list, and we haven't yet put in the descriptions of each Jewish language and suggested reading. If you're interested in helping with that, please contact Sarah at sbenor @ stanford.edu. And if there are any problems on your individual pages, please let us know. A few of you sent in your info after the deadline, and that will appear on the next draft, as will anything else I receive by August 1. In September, we plan to officially launch the site and announce it to Jewish Studies and Linguistics listserves. Thanks again for all your submissions. -Sarah Bunin Benor

Date: Sat, 07 Jul 2001 01:31 
From: miriam <miryamsh @ inter.net.il> 
Subject: judeo-portugues

Dear sirs Mrs. Sara Bunin Suggested me to ask you if you have data about people studying judeo-portugues language. I would like to have some contacts in this field. Thank you Miriam

Date: Mon, 09 Jul 2001 17:10 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: greeting in Jewish languages

A colleague writing liner notes for a Jewish music recording has a question: ---------------- Do you know, do Jews in all or many of the different communities in Europe, Asia, No. Africa and the Middle East say "Shalom Aleichem," or some variant such as the Yiddish or Judeo-Arabic? Do linguists agree that this is a Hebrew phrase brought into Jewish languages? Or is it more ambiguous in each case? ---------------- Please e-mail me with information about this in the language(s) you work on, and I'll compile a summary for him and for this list. Thanks, Sarah Bunin Benor

Date: Sat, 14 Jul 2001 15:12 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Israeli Association for the Study of Language and Society

From Eliezer Ben-Rafael saba @ post.tau.ac.il We are pleased to announce the creation of the Israeli Association for the Study of Language and Society (IALS). This association was created to fill the void which exists in Israel in the investigation of language and society. Our intention is to create a professional community that will include people of diverse disciplines who investigate, or are interested in, the relation between language and society. Subjects of interest include: the evolution of Hebrew throughout Israeli society, and, eventually, beyond Israel's borders; the attrition and/or retention, and evolution, of Jewish languages in specific groups - Yiddish, Judeo-Arabic, Ladino, etc.; the attrition and/or retention, and evolution of non-Jewish languages - Russian, Polish, Rumanian, German, etc. - conveyed by Jewish groups; the development of Palestinian Arabic; the penetration and expansion of worldwide communication languages - focusing on English, but also French, Italian, etc. Any other research on language - such as language contact, code-switching, etc - that is pertinent to the relation of language and society is, of course, of interest to this Association as well. This Association welcomes individuals who work outside Israel on these subjects, especially individuals who work on Jewish languages. The Annual Conference of the Association that is scheduled in May 2002 should be a great opportunity to plan common activities and working sessions. The Annual conference will be held on the 7/8 of May 2002, and it is hoped that we will be able then to set up permanent working groups in a variety of fields. Following that, we hope to develop the basis for a periodical. In the meantime, that is in about 2 or 3 weeks, we will already have a site where we will be able to publish, at least in this way, not only information but also articles. From there we may proceed, hopefully, to set up an electronic journal. As for the question of fees, we do ask for individual members to contribute the sum of 100 shekels (about 22$), if they are full members (MA or PhD), 80 shekels (12$) (students). The registration form is attached. We hope that as many people as possible will suscribe to the mailing list of interested people and that we will be able to attract them to our activities as members. For more information, contact ials @ post.tau.ac.il Eliezer Ben-Rafael Tel Aviv University

Date: Sat, 14 Jul 2001 15:18 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Israel Association for the Study of Language and Society

Message from Eliezer Ben-Rafael saba @ post.tau.ac.il Dear colleagues, I am Eliezer Ben-Rafael, a sociologist from the Tel-Aviv University. One of my major fields of research is bilingualism in Israel, and the social parameters of the retention and attrition of Israel's linguistic resources. I have also the privilege to be the present chairperson of a new Israeli Association for the Study of Language and Society (IALS) that has been set up about a couple of months ago. Sarah Bunin Benor has kindly agreed to send out to the suscribers of this list the small text that I have sent her about this Association. This message emphasized that this Association aspires to bring together all researchers, practioners and others who share an interest in the relation of language to society. Hence, it is open not only to linguists or sociolinguists but also to sociologists, economists, historians, philosophers, literature scholars and many others. The present message is to inform you about our next major activity, that is, the 2002 Annual Conference. This Conference will take place under the title "Language and Identity in a multicultural society", on May 5-7, 2002, at Tel-Aviv University. By the nature of things, many papers will consider language-society issues in Israel, but we do hope that colleagues from abroad will join us and present their work, in order to widen the Association's ranks and the range of its interests. We intend to crystallize the Conference Program by November, and my colleague Yitzhak Sternberg, the Secretary of the Association, and myself will be delighted to answer any query you might have. You can, of course, use my mail address, but you have also the Association's address at your disposal: ials @ post.tau.ac.il. We also hope that we will have a website in about a couple of weeks and that this will be a convenient way to convey information to all people interested in our activities. We will inform you as soon as this site is operative. To those of you who are interested in being members of the Association, please send a check of $25 to: The Institute for Social Research, Department of Sociology, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel. Please specify in your letter: 1/Name 2/title 3/personal address 4/institutional affiliation 5/particular interests and current activities in the area of "language and society" 6/phones, fax, e-mail address With my best feelings, Eliezer Ben-Rafael Weinberg Professor of Political Sociology Department of Sociology, Tel-Aviv University Naftali Bld 606, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel Tel: +972 3 640.88.24 H: Hadror 11, Ramat-Hasharon 47203, Israel Tel: +972 3 540.62.97; Fax: +972 3 540.22.91

Date: Mon, 16 Jul 2001 10:35 
From: "Ghil`ad ZUCKERMANN" <gz208 @ cam.ac.uk> 
Subject: Ivrit versus Hebrew

Dear researcher of Jewish languages, I have discussed the following matter with Sarah and Tsuguya and we have decided that it would be good to open this up for discussion on the list. The following represents my own query/proposal. With regard to http://www.stanford.edu/dept/linguistics/jewish/languages.html, do you think that there might be a possibility of distinguishing between HEBREW (i.e. Biblical-Talmudic-Medieval...) and IVRIT (i.e. the language currently spoken in Israel)? Both are highly researched, so, in a way, EACH of them deserves at least the status of Judaeo-Persian etc. We might want to make a distinction between scholars who deal only with Hebrew, and those who focus on Ivrit (for whom Hebrew is prehistory) because often the research of Hebrew is very different from that of Ivrit. The similarity between someone exploring Hebrew and someone exploring another non-currently-spoken Jewish language is greater, I believe, than the similarity between someone researching Hebrew and someone researching Ivrit. (Obviously, however, there are researchers who belong to both categories.) The use of the term IVRIT in English (cf. "Ivrit" used in German by Wild 1977) is similar to that of YIDDISH rather than *JEWISH or to the possible use of "Français" as opposed to "French". I use "Ivrit" to supersede the commonly used terms which refer to the language currently spoken by Israelis, such as the vague "Modern Hebrew" (it is unclear whether this embraces the nineteenth century Hebrew of the Haskalah), the ambiguous or periphrastic "Modern Israeli Hebrew", and finally the useless "Hebrew" tout court, each of these being misleading. The indexicality of the term "Contemporary Hebrew" (see, for example, Rosén's 1977 book _Contemporary Hebrew_) renders it accurate only when referring to the language currently spoken in Israel. Instead of calling it "Ivrit", one could use "Israeli" (cf. English, Italian) or (if one insists) "Israeli Hebrew" (the latter is used, for example, by Sáenz-Badillos 1993). These terms, however, might also be misleading since Ivrit was spoken before the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948 and some of the neologisms were coined in the diaspora and not in Eretz Yisrael. Another term could be Tsabarish, from tsabar "prickly pear", a nickname for native Israelis (Sabra), allegedly thorny and "dugri" on the outside and sweet inside. In any event, it seems inadequate to translate the name "milón olamí leivrít medubéret" (Ben-Amotz and Ben-Yehuda, 1972) into English as "The World Dictionary of Hebrew Slang". All this may not only be a semantic issue - unlike Greek, for example, where there has been an unbroken chain of native speakers from Ancient to Modern Greek, Hebrew was not used as a vernacular for approximately 1,750 years, and therefore the twentieth century "revived Hebrew" cannot be regarded as a direct continuation of the Hebrew of the past. There is much debate over whether it is really possible to revive a language (without changing its nature), and one might question whether Ivrit is a Semitic AltneuLANGUE, and thus regard the term "Hebrew" as misapplied. Finally, the dichotomy between HEBREW and IVRIT is obviously impossible in Ivrit itself (there, Ivrit might be called israelit, isreelit, tsabarit etc., unless one utters IvRit - with an alveolar trill - imitating the English pronunciation :-) ). This might serve as a beautiful illustration of the fact that sometimes an external analysis has some advantages which do not exist in an internal one. The Jewish Languages website is neither in Hebrew nor in Ivrit - it is in American. Best wishes, ("\''/").__..--''" -._ `o_ o ) `-. ( ).`-.__.`) (_Y_.)' ._ ) `._ `. ``-..-' _..`--'_.-_/ /--'_.' .' (il).-'' ((i).' ((!.-' Ghil`ad Zuckermann http://www.cus.cam.ac.uk/~gz208/

Date: Mon, 16 Jul 2001 13:18 
From: George Jochnowitz <jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu> 
Subject: Re: Ivrit versus Hebrew

Despite all the differences in meaning between "Ivrit" and "Hebrew," I think introducing a new term is a bad idea. A new word adds an extra barrier between our research and the rest of the world. Laypersons should be able to look at scholarly work without being intimidated by unfamiliar names for familiar languages. The fact that "Israeli Hebrew" is an anachronistic term should not cause a problem. Israeli Hebrew simply antedates Israel. Similarly, German antedates Germany; Italian antedates Italy. Chaucer's English and our English are both English, although they are even more different from each other than Israeli Hebrew is from Biblical or Mishnaic Hebrew. There is nothing especially awkward about saying "Middle English" or "Modern English." As for Old English, the term "Anglo-Saxon" has grown less and less common. Ben Yehuda knew that Hebrew would have to be partially reinvented. Nevertheless, he chose Hebrew to be the basis for his new language, not French or German. The existence of Modern Hebrew has no parallel that I am aware of. A language that once had no native speakers now has them. If I didn't know about the use of Israeli Hebrew, I would say it couldn't possibly have happened. Since it did happen, against all odds, we should celebrate its existence by calling it "Hebrew." George Jochnowitz

Date: Mon, 16 Jul 2001 14:22 
From: Bernard Spolsky <spolsb @ mail.biu.ac.il> 
Subject: Re: Ivrit versus Hebrew

If you read my chapter on Hebrew in Fishman's new book on Reversing Language Shift, you will see that I certainly agree that revived languages are unlike their earlier namesakes. But so of course are all the currently used recognizable varieties of English, Hebrew, French, etc. It seems wiser to keep the simplest term for the language as a whole, and use various adjectives to delimit it when appropriate. Professor Emeritus Bernard Spolsky 32 Habad Street 97500 Jerusalem, ISRAEL Phone: +972(2)628-2044 Fax: +972(2)628-5472 e-mail: spolsb @ mail.biu.ac.il http://www.biu.ac.il/hu/en/staff/b.spolsky

Date: Mon, 16 Jul 2001 14:34 
From: Bernard Spolsky <spolsb @ mail.biu.ac.il> 
Subject: Re: Ivrit versus Hebrew

I basically agree with Jochnowitz. I have been told there are at least 2 native speakers of Cornish. Bernard Spolsky

Date: Mon, 16 Jul 2001 15:11 
From: Miriam Isaacs <misaacs @ wam.umd.edu> 
Subject: Re: Israel Association for the Study of Language and Society

I am delighted to learn of the new effort in Israel, but also would like ask a question generally. My concern is the very wording of the object of inquiry, wondering whether this may skew approaches to the subject matter. The attrition, retention, evolution- in the terms of the call seem leading. I would value others' opinions and thoughts on the subject.

Date: Tue, 17 Jul 2001 16:51 
From: Hayim Sheynin <hsheynin @ gratz.edu> 
Subject: Re: Ivrit versus Hebrew

This was very nice discussion. Basically the question is covered. Only some additional notes. First, there is a difference between Ivrit (as an artificial mix of Hebrew of different periods and styles, with some errors in adoption of certain words, like 'melafefon' for cucumber [instead of cabbage] or 'ribah' for jam, preserves [instead of compote] --and many other examples--) and Sabra Ivrit (how it is spoken by native Israelis). Of course, phonology of Israeli Hebrew is different from the period of the living Hebrew, which was strictly Semitic, especially phonologically and syntactically. In Modern Hebrew there are phonetic influences (or maybe even entire phonetic base) of Yiddish. There are differences in formation and meaning of tenses. There are non-Semitic syntactic structures. There is use of non-Semitic prefixes and suffixes. I am not talking about loan words because this is common to many languages (compare English). But on the whole it can be covered by the term Hebrew. Secondly, there were cases of death of languages, for example Dalmatian, the last speaker of which Antonio Undina died in 1898. The modern Assyrian (an Aramaic dialect of Christian Syrians--aysors) is on the verge of extinction. There were cases of restoration of literary languages like Provencal and Hungarian. Most or all of the Provencal (Occitan) speakers are bi-lingual. Most or all of Hungarians in generation of Sándor Petofi and several generations after him remained bi-lingual. However restoration of Hebrew, on my opinion, exceeds all previous cases, because it passed on all the levels, succeeded beyond any imagination, and the masses of native (uneducated) speakers born in Israel even don't realize this is a restored language. The only knowledge of the linguistic self-identity that a sabra knows that his or her parents spoke language X (sometimes even with a doubt, was it German, Polish or Russian). It is through the school they know about works of Eliezer Ben Yehudah. Moreover both the Rabbinical and the Zionist tradition politically treated all the periods of the language as an unbroken chain calling it "Lashon ha-kodesh" (the holy tongue) as opposite to Jewish vernaculars. The work of Frederic Mistral, Sándor Petofi and Hayim Nahman Bialik were essentially different. However it is imaginable that if Mistral would take as a base not some spoken dialects of Provencal (dialects or parlers of the southern Rhone region), but the dead language of Provencal troubadours, it would be a good parallel to Ben Yehudah and Bialik. To my sorrow, in linguistics, like in history, "if would" questions are not permissible, and experiments are rarely used. Sorry, I do not have in my email sign of Umlaut that should be over o in Petofi. S pronounced in Hungarian as English sh, for sound s they use sz. A vowel marked with acute accent means long vowel. Hayim Y. Sheynin aka Jaime Vidal de la Ermoza.

Date: Thu, 19 Jul 2001 07:40 
From: Ghil`ad ZUCKERMANN <gz208 @ cam.ac.uk> 
Subject: More on IVRIT versus HEBREW

Dear fellow scholars of Jewish languages, Thank you very much for your lovely messages. With your permission, the following are some very brief, friendly follow-ups: > The existence of Modern Hebrew has no parallel that I am aware of. You are right. This is exactly my point. Therefore, one should not compare the proposed distinction between Ivrit and Hebrew to that between Modern English and Old English. > A language that once had no native speakers now has them. If I didn't > know about the use of Israeli Hebrew, I would say it couldn't possibly > have happened. Since it did happen, against all odds, we should > celebrate its existence by calling it "Hebrew." Alternatively, we might want to ask ourselves some additional questions: "What exactly happened there?", "Is revival tout court really possible?" > Ben Yehuda knew that Hebrew would have to be partially reinvented. > Nevertheless, he chose Hebrew to be the basis for his new language, not > French or German. You are right. However, my question is whether Eliezer and his fellow revivalists did (or could) actually succeed in ignoring their mother tongue (Yiddish)? > The phonology of spoken Hebrew is interesting as well, specially the > adoption of simplified Sephardi pronunciation, which is all that is > different from the phonetic base of Yiddish or Ashkenazi Hebrew. It is true that the way in which the kamats (qåmaS) vowel (Hebrew [å]) is pronounced ([a]) follows Sephardic traditions rather than Ashekanazic Hebrew ([o]). Likewise, a non-geminate t is pronounced [t] rather than [s] as in Ashkenazic Hebrew. However, the consonant inventory and the vowel inventory of Ivrit totally reflect Yiddish. Hence, I believe that the pronunciation of a Yemenite speaking Ivrit is actually non-standard. In fact, such unique oriental (mizrahi) pronunciation is gradually disappearing, one of the reasons being that Ivrit was formed mostly by Yiddish-speaking Ashkenazic Jews and its standards are thus different from the Semitic standards of Hebrew. Furthermore, as indicated by sfirát yehudéy érets yisraél, a census conducted in 1916-18 (cf. Bachi 1956: 67-9), the Ashkenazim were the ones who were most receptive to the "language revival": 61.9% of Ashkenazic children and 28.5% of Ashkenazic adults spoke Ivrit in 1916-18. The percentage of Ivrit speakers among Sephardim (constituting most of the veteran residents in Eretz Yisrael) and the other Oriental (i.e. mizrahi) Jews (excluding the Yemenites) was very low: only 18.3% of Sephardic children and 8.4% of Sephardic adults spoke Ivrit in 1916-18, whilst 18.1% of Oriental children and 7.3% of Oriental adults spoke Ivrit (cf. 53.1% among Yemenite children and 37.6% among Yemenite adults). Finally, whilst the syllable structure of Biblical Hebrew was CVX(C), cf. ['eq.qaH], [qamt] and [si:r], the syllable structure of Ivrit is (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C), cf. zvuv, strep.tiz, ets, o, shrimps, sprint and til.prent. Note that the syllable structure of Yiddish is identical: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C) (and in some cases: CC, with a syllabic consonant). > The term "Semitic" is meaningful only in the context of genetic- > genealogical classification, not in any typological or social or ethnic > sense. I understand your point. However, I personally believe that in determining the genetic affiliation of a language - as opposed to typological characteristics - one should not overlook extra-linguistic factors such as the history of the first native speakers, and whether there was a speaking community when the language was introduced or "reinvented". The reason is that such extra-linguistic factors could be highly linked to linguistic ones (cf. Horvath and Wexler 1997). I have never said that Ivrit was not Semitic. However, one should acknowledge that it might also - simultaneously - be Indo-European. The term "fusion" might not be inappropriate. > Renan felt that Akkadian was not "Semitic" enough to his taste, > some might say that for them Amharic with its undisturbed continuity is > not really "Semitic", That is typology, not genetics. Genetically, as you obviously agree upon, Akkadian and Amharic are Semitic. Incidentally, these examples strengthen the link between genetic classification and the existence of a chain of native speakers. > Chaucer's English and our English are both English, although they are > even more different from each other than Israeli Hebrew is from Biblical > or Mishnaic Hebrew. Ullendorff (pc), may he live a long healthy life, repeats his claim that the biblical Isaiah could understand the Ivrit spoken by Israelis. I am not convinced that this is the case. Furthermore, I believe that the real reason Israelis understand Isaiah - however badly - is that they study the Old Testament at school for eleven years - from the second grade until the twelfth grade, i.e. between the ages of 7 and 18. Yet, Israeli children are brainwashed to believe that the Old Testament was written in their mother tongue. In other words, in Israeli elementary schools, Hebrew and Ivrit are ab initio, axiomatically, the very same language. Therefore, one cannot possibly expect Israelis to agree with the presented point of view. I urge you, obiter dictum, to try to imagine how frustrated (young) Israelis are when they do not actually understand their "mother tongue" without the aid of extensive commentaries and glossaries. Having said that, mutual intelligibility is not a crucial criterion in determining the genetic affiliation of a language. Some English speakers might understand English-based creoles (whose grammar etc. is not English). Would you regard those languages as a "form of English"? With very best wishes to you and to Israel, Ghil`ad http://www.cus.cam.ac.uk/~gz208/

August 2001

Date: Sat, 11 Aug 2001 16:42 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Tuesday 1:45pm: meeting at World Congress of Jewish Studies

Thank you to everyone who sent ideas about where and when to meet. It seems that the best time is Tuesday lunch, which is at 1:45pm - 3pm. And it seems that the best place to meet is the cafeteria by Wing #8 of the Humanities Faculty (at Har Hatzofim). Any Jewish Language researchers are welcome, and it will be a good chance for us to meet. See you then, Sarah Bunin Benor

Date: Tue, 07 Aug 2001 22:08 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: World Congress of Jewish Studies

Next week is the big conference in Jerusalem, and I think it would be good to have a get-together of Jewish language scholars. Those of you who will be there- when is a good time and place to meet? Maybe Tuesday lunch? Tuesday dinner? Wednesday lunch? I figure we can meet in a cafeteria and push some tables together. -Sarah Bunin Benor

Date: Sun, 26 Aug 2001 11:39 
From: <jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu> 
Subject: NYTimes.com Article: Hebrew, Modern and Biblical

This article from NYTimes.com has been sent to you by jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu A Hasidic family in Lithuania? \----------------------------------------------------------/ Hebrew, Modern and Biblical Sunday Q & A appears in this section weekly. Readers are invited to send in questions about national or international affairs; those selected will be answered by Times correspondents who specialize in those issues. Information about submitting questions appears below. Hebrew, Modern and Biblical Q. What is the difference, if any, between biblical and modern Hebrew? A. Gustav Niebuhr, a national religion correspondent, responds: Actually, in the past 3,000 years, there have been four varieties of Hebrew — biblical, rabbinic, medieval and modern. Modern Hebrew is the language of the state of Israel, revived more than a century ago by a true linguistic pioneer, Eliezer Ben- Yehuda. Born into a Hasidic family in Lithuania, he moved to Haifa in the 1880's, where he founded an early Zionist organization. One of its principles was restoring the Hebrew language. Today's Hebrew contains vocabulary and grammatical elements from the language's biblical roots, said Dr. Alan Cooper, a professor of Bible who holds a joint appointment at Jewish Theological Seminary and Union Theological Seminary in New York. Israelis, Dr. Cooper said, conjugate verbs according to rules laid down in biblical times. But the modern language's syntax is post-biblical. And what is spoken by Israelis today also includes words derived from languages of other countries, in Europe and the Middle East, from which Jews have emigrated. That points to the fact that modern Hebrew is dynamic. Perhaps unsurprisingly, the Israelis maintain a watchdog institute over their language, a bit like the French. It is called the Academy of the Hebrew Language, said Dr. Cooper, who added, "It regularly issues what you might call white papers, in which they suggest new vocabulary and sometimes decry errors that creep into the language." Send questions by e-mail to sundayq&a @ nytimes.com , or by mail to Sunday Q & A, The New York Times, 229 West 43rd Street, New York, N.Y. 10036. Those of widest interest will be selected, but unpublished questions cannot be answered individually. http://www.nytimes.com/2001/08/26/national/26SUNQ.html ?ex=999840347&ei=1&en=017f48cdb7e7b32a /-----------------------------------------------------------------\

Date: Sun, 26 Aug 2001 12:14 
From: "George Jochnowitz" <jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu> 
Subject: Fw: Subject: A Lithuanian Hasid

Dear friends, After sending you the Q & A section of today's New York Times, together with my question about Ben-Yehudah having been a Lithuanian Hasid, I looked him in in the Encyclopedia Judaica and found that his father had been a Habad Hasid. I forwarded the article not because I wondered about the religious allegiance of Ben-Yehudah's family but simply because the question of modern Hebrew has appeared on our list. It occurs to me that once upon a time (1996), I reviewed Benjamin Harshav's Language in Time of Revolution in the AJS Review (Vol. 21, No.1). George (Gershon) Jochnowitz

Date: Mon, 27 Aug 2001 16:31 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Website

Tsuguya Sasaki and I will be updateing the Jewish Language Research Website in the next few weeks. If you have not yet sent me your information, please do so before September 3. As a reminder, the format should be like Seth Jerchower's, which is printed below. By the way, thanks to Seth for his continuing work on maintaining the archive of this list (http://petrarch.freeservers.com/jewishlanglist.html). -Sarah Sample Entry: -Name Seth Jerchower -Academic Affiliation University of Pennsylvania, Universität Freiburg -Country USA -E-mail Address (optional) sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu, jubal33 @ earthlink.net -Website URI (optional) http://petrarch.freeservers.com http://www.library.upenn.edu/cjs/ (webmaster) -Area(s) and Language(s) of Interest: General linguistics, linguistic theory, syntax, phonology, socio-linguistics, dialectology, historical linguistics, corpus processing, character set development; Judeo-Italian, Judeo-Greek, Judeo-Romance languages, Judeo-X languages, Romance languages, Latin, Indo-European languages, Semitic languages, Genizah studies, Masoretic Studies, Liturgy. -Areas/Languages of interest listed with books and/or papers (published or unpublished): Judeo-Italian: Jerchower, S. 2000: Judeo-Italian, article in The Encyclopedia of the Renaissance, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2000. Jerchower, S. 1998: Hypertext publication of I Trionfi by Francesco Petrarca. Jerchower, S. 1993: La tradizione manoscritta giudeo-italiana della Bibbia, Doctoral Dissertation, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 1993. Jerchower, S. in progress. MS Parma 3068, Judeo-Italian Translation of Prophets: Text, Phonology, Grammar, Lexicon, Syntax (Dissertation, Universität Freiburg; expected in 2002). Jerchower, S. forthcoming. A Descriptive Grammar of Judeo-Italian (LINCOM Europa, Munich). Jerchower, S. forthcoming. Judeo-Italian Kinot for the 9th of Av, Corfiot Rite - critical edition (LINCOM Europa, Munich). Bible - History of Printing: Jerchower, S. 1991. La Bibbia a Stampa da Gutenberg a Bodoni, contributor and editorial consultant, 29 entries. Biblioteca Mediceo-Laurenziana, Florence, 1991. Liturgy: Jerchower, S. 2002: "Jüdische Kultusgemeinde", article in Der neue Pauly. Enzyklopädie der Antike (in publication).

September 2001

Date: Tue, 11 Sep 2001 13:07 
From: Ora Schwarzwald <oschwarz @ mail.biu.ac.il> 
Subject: info

Dear Members, Only today did I read rgw article about Modern Hebrew published in the times. For your information, my new book MODERN HEBREW published by LINCOM EUROPA recently (2001) deal with these issues. Ora =============================================== Prof. Ora R. Schwarzwald Hebrew and Semitic Languages Bar Ilan University Ramat Gan, ISRAEL 52900 Tel. 972-3-5325021 (home), 5318667 (office) FAX: 972-3-5324855 (home), 5351233 (faculty) E-mail: oschwarz @ mail.biu.ac.il http://faculty.biu.ac.il/~oschwarz http://www.biu.ac.il/JS/hb/oraheb.htm

Date: Sat, 22 Sep 2001 18:08 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Cracow Yiddish query

This message was posted yesterday to Linguist List. The e-mail address of the poster is listed at the end. -Sarah Dear linguists, Some authors claim Cracow Yiddish is part SWY part WY. In Beranek (Westjiddischer Sprachatlas) I found that MHG. ei> ay (SWY) MHG. ii> ay (WY). M. Gebirtig in his songs rhymes Standard lib-shtub (SWY), zayn-geweyn, and grois-mois (which do not rhyme in any real EY dialect, but may rhyme in WY). Now there is a chance of poetic licence, but frankly I doubt it. I can't find any published sources on this dialect. Could anyone comment on that? Also, can anyone give me basic characteristics of Cracow Yiddish, i.e. what happened to final voiced consonants, final er, what is the R like, and what happened to MHG. vowels aa ee ii oo uu a e i o u ou ei iu (what are Cracow equivelents of zogn, shney, dayn, groys, hoyz, mame, weg, lip, hot, gut, boym, kleyn, fraynd). I will be grateful for all responses. Tomasz Wisniewski tomwisn @ yahoo.com

Date: Sun, 30 Sep 2001 19:15 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: 3 questions: Yiddish, Solitreo, Hebrew in America

Here are a few questions I've received recently but could not answer on my own. If you can answer any of them, please respond directly to the people who sent them. Thanks, Sarah From: Michal Held msmheld @ mscc.huji.ac.il Do you (or anybody else) have any idea regarding the new website of the Israeli National Authority for Yiddish? I saw an ad in on of the Israeli papers saying they now have a site (www.yiddish.org.il), but cannot find it. Thanks, Michal. ----------------------------- From: Dorysel @ aol.com I am working on translating a cache of cards and letters written to relatives in the USA from relatives in Skopje, Yugoslavia in 1920-1940. This is a Jewish family, who spoke ladino. The written text is in a cursive manuscript called solitreo. I am looking to locate a "chart" that will give me the Hebrew or phonetic equivalents to the letters of solitreo. Then I can translate the texts into ladino and the family elders can translate that into English. All of the people in Skopje, who wrote these letters, died during the Holocaust, and so we are so interested in establishing their identities for future generations. Do you have any knowledge of solitreo, or can you refer me to a person or book where I can get more information.. Any help would be greatly appreciated. Thank you. Doryce Seltzer dorysel @ aol.com -------------------------------------------- From: Judah Cohen jcohen @ fas.harvard.edu [paraphrased:] Do you know of any literature about the pronunciation of Hebrew in (non-Ultra-Orthodox) American Jewish schools? There was a transition from Ashkenazic to Modern Hebrew pronunciation some time in the middle of this century, but I haven't found any research on the timeframe of and discussion surrounding this transition. If you know of anything, please let me know. Thanks, Judah

October 2001

Date: Mon, 01 Oct 2001 14:23 
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu> 
Subject: Re: 3 questions: Yiddish, Solitreo, Hebrew in America

Mo'adim le-Simha to all. The Mailing address (in Hebrew) and e-mail link to contact the Israeli National Authority for Yiddish may be found at the following link: http://www.yiddish.org.il/0112.swf? Unfortunately, the site is designed in Shockwave, so the plugins (Flash, available from www.macromedia.com, free download) are needed to view the site. Most of it is still under construction. Best regards, SJ ************************************************* Seth Jerchower Public Services Librarian Center for Judaic Studies University of Pennsylvania 420 Walnut Street Philadelphia, PA 19106 Tel: (215) 238-1290, ext. 203 Fax: (215) 238-1540 sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu http://www.library.upenn.edu/cjs/ ************************************************* " Proverai tua ventura fra' magnanimi pochi a chi 'l ben piace. Di' lor: « Chi m'assicura? I' vo gridando: Pace, pace, pace. » "

Date: Wednesday, 03 Oct 2001 18:03 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Aramaic-Hebrew character set re ISO10646 / Unicode (fwd)

This is a message from: Elaine Keown San Jose, CA 408 947 7779 Hello: I enclose a list of the Aramaic-Hebrew character set. The list is mostly "square script" except for the epigraphic and Samaritan sections. It was compiled during two years of research to improve the coverage of languages written in Hebrew in international computer standards. I collaborated with Dr. Seth Jerchower, a scholar of Judeo-Romance, and also with an Aramaist, Prof. Paul Flesher. I am sending the list to e-discussion groups to begin public review. Public review is a requirement for international computer standards work. However, I am also sure that the list is incomplete in several sections. In probably 18 months a technical proposal will be written to either the ISO's JTC1/SC2 technical committee (Switzerland) or The Unicode Consortium (Mountain View, California) with an improved version of this list. Forty-five percent of this list (from SECTION A and from Yiddish and Ladino) is already in 10646/ Unicode, the most widely used international computer standard. When Unicode and ISO process the proposal and accept whichever subset of the remaining list they like (probably 80-90%), then these symbols will be added to ISO 10646/Unicode. Then these symbols can be used much more easily in Web pages, may be supported by font makers, and might even be supported by large software manufacturers. Thank you, Elaine Keown _______________________________________________________________ NOTE: footnote numbers are in ( ). THE ARAMAIC-HEBREW CHARACTER SET: A PRELIMINARY LIST Complete Net symbol count(1) count(2) SECTION A.. Ancient or common symbols 1. Most ancient 22-letter alphabet 22 22 2. Ancient epigraphic symbols(3) 12 12 3. Ezra's points (4) 2 2 4. Medial letters 5 5 5. Tiberian pointing and other 53 52 masoretic apparatus 6. Other Hebrew ms symbols(5) 7 7 Net subset totals 100 SECTION B. Variant letters for regional Jewish languages written in square script(6) 7. Arabic(7) 6 4 8. Berber(8) 1 0 9. Persian(9) 3 0 10. Tajik(10) (Bukhari) 4 2 11. Tat(11) 3 2 12. Krimchak(12) 3 1 13. Neo-Aramaic(13,14) (Kurdit) 3 1 14. Greek(15) 3 1 15. French(16) 7 3 16. Shuadit(17), Comtadin(18) 1 0 17. Italian(19) 6 1 18. Ladino(20) 4 2 19. Yiddish(21) 6 3 Net subset totals 20 SECTION C. Other pointing, reading, masoretic systems 20. Babylonian(22) 39 35 21. Palestinian(23) 31 18 22. Samaritan(24) 21 12 Net subset totals 65 SECTION D. Rare or unique symbols 23. Palmyrene dotted resh(25) 1 1 24. Bodleian Hebrew e63, fol. 106r- 2 1 121v(26) 25. Cairo Codex(27) 1 1 Net subset totals 2 Total Aramaic-Hebrew symbols found to date: 188 NOTES: 1. This number includes the complete set of extra symbols found in the subset. 2. This number is the net number of symbols after subtracting those found in more than one category. 3. Y. AHARONI, Arad Inscriptions, Jerusalem, 1986, p. 34. This count includes the ten widely used numerals, originally from Demotic Egyptian, found in Hebrew, Aramaic, Judeo-Persian, Nabataean, etc. epigraphy, ostraca, bullae, and other materials. For an excellent presentation, see G. IFRAH, The universal history of numbers: from prehistory to the invention of the computer, New York, 2000, pp. 236-237. See also R. DEUTSCH, New epigraphic evidence from the Biblical period, Tel Aviv, 1995. For their use in Aramaic edicts of Aíoka, see G. Pugliese CARRATELLI and G. GARBINI, A bilingual Graeco-Aramaic edict by Aíoka, Roma, 1969, p. 43. 4. These two very old points, an upper middle and a lower middle dot, occur in Qumran texts and are found in Torah scrolls. Aboth de R. Nathan calls them Ezra's points. Later European literature calls them "puncta extraordinaria." See Aaron DOTAN, "Masorah," Encyclopaedia Judaica, Jerusalem, 1971, col. 1408. See R. BUTIN, The ten nequdoth of the Torah, New York, 1969, p. XXV, 23. 5. Here I include inverted nuns, pehs, and tsadis plus the two abbreviation symbols ( and ). 6. This list of languages written in Hebrew is not yet complete: it does not include several central Iranian Jewish dialects (Kashani, Isfahani, Yazdi, and Kermani), Maltese in Hebrew, Genizah Latin in Hebrew, or Portuguese in Hebrew. 7. Benjamin HARY, "Adaptations of Hebrew script," in Peter T. DANIELS, The World's Writing Systems, Oxford, 1995, pp. 727-734. Judeo-Arabic texts were apparently first computerized at Dropsie by Prof. Lawrence V. Berman. Later in the 1970s Prof. Alan Corré produced a computerized lexicon. 8. P. GALAND-PERNET, Une version berbère de la haggadah de Pesach, Paris, 1970. See also M. O'CONNOR, "The Berber scripts," in DANIELS, cited above, p. 115. 9. Judeo-Persian, Bukhari, and Tat are dialects of Persian from different areas. See Herbert PAPER, A Judeo-Persian Pentateuch, Jerusalem, 1972, p. for the alphabet. 10. Nissim TAGGER, Milon Ivri-Bukhari, Tel Aviv, 1960, passim. 11. Harald HAARMAN, "Yiddish and the other Jewish languages in the Soviet Union," in J. FISHMAN, ed., Readings in the Sociology of Jewish languages, Leiden, 1985, p. 165. 12. Krimchak, a Kipchak Turkic language, also called Judeo-Crimean Tatar, is one of at least three Turkic Rabbanite or Karaite languages (the others are Karaim and Khazar). For Krimchak symbols, see I. IANBAY and M. ERDAL, The Krimchak Translation of the Book of Ruth, Mediterranean Language Review, 10, 1998, pp. 1-53. See also W. MOSKOVITZ, "Krimchak Language," Encyclopaedia Judaica Yearbook 1988/9, Jerusalem, 1989, p. 371. 13. The languages called "Kurdit" in Modern Hebrew are actually Neo-Aramaic dialects, originally from Kurdistan and other regions. See I. AVINERY, The Aramaic dialect of the Jews of Zakho, Jerusalem, 1988, p. v. 14. For symbols, see Yona SABAR, Targum de-Targum: an old Neo-Aramaic version of the Targum on Song of Songs, Wiesbaden, p. 9. 15. For some symbols, see Nicholas DE LANGE, Greek Jewish Texts from the Cairo Genizah, Tubingen, 1996, pp. 5-79. 16. Menachem BANITT, The glossaire de Bâle. Texte. Académie Nationale des Sciences et des Lettres d'Israël, Jerusalem, 1972, pp. ix, x. 17. For Shuadit symbols, see Susan SILBERSTEIN, The Provencal Esther Poem Written in Hebrew Characters c. 1327 by Crescas de Caylar: Critical Edition. Dissertation, 1973, University of Pennsylvania, pp. 260-272. 18. For symbols of Comtadin, see E. SABATIER, Chansons Hébraïco-Provençales des Juifs Comtadins, Paris, 1927, pp. 11-12. 19. Alan FREEDMAN, Italian texts in Hebrew characters: problems of interpretation, Wiesbaden, 1972, p. 123. 20. B. HARY, "Judeo-Spanish (Ladino)," in DANIELS, cited above, p. 734. 21. Howard ARONSON, "Yiddish," in DANIELS, pp. 735-742. 22. Paul KAHLE, Der Masoretische Text des Alten Testaments nach der Überlieferung des Babylonischen Juden, Leipzig, 1902, pp. 24, 34, 46-47. 23. Manfried DIETRICH, Neue palästinisch punktierte Bibelfragmente: Veröffentlich und auf Text und Punktation hin untersucht, Leiden, 1968, p. 88* [Tafel II]. This count does not include variant Palestinian marks such as found in Genizah materials. 24. Rudolf MACUCH, Grammatik des Samaritanischen Hebräisch, Berlin, 1969, pp. 61-76. 25. Hillers, Delbert R. and Eleonora Cussini, Palmyrene Aramaic Texts. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, 1996, pp. 23, 31, 33, 55. 26. Ugo MARAZZI, Tevarihi Ali Osman: cronaca anonima ottamana in trascrizione ebraica, Napoli, 1980. 27. MarÍa Josefa de AZCARRAGA-SERVERT, "El ketib/qere en el libro de Josue del Codice de Profetas de El Cairo," Proceedings of the Eleventh Congress of the International Organization for Masoretic Studies (IOMS), Jerusalem, 1994, p. 7.

Date: Fri, 19 Oct 2001 13:25 
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu> 
Subject: VIRUS ALERT

Dear fellow listers, I suspect that a virus is multiplying itself through one of our members. If anyone receives a message from miryamsh @ inter.net.il with the attachment "pequena.com", do not open it, as it contains a worm virus. I will notify Miryam that her computer is infected. Kol tuv, SJ ************************************************* Seth Jerchower Public Services Librarian Center for Judaic Studies University of Pennsylvania 420 Walnut Street Philadelphia, PA 19106 Tel: (215) 238-1290, ext. 203 Fax: (215) 238-1540 sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu http://www.library.upenn.edu/cjs/ ************************************************* " Proverai tua ventura fra' magnanimi pochi a chi 'l ben piace. Di' lor: « Chi m'assicura? I' vo gridando: Pace, pace, pace. » "

Date: Tue, 23 Oct 2001 21:30 
From: Mark Williamson <aaaboyz1 @ hotmail.com> 
Subject: A number of questions (dictionaries, lists)

First of all, I have a list of Jewish languages that I have compiled from various sources, and was wondering if anybody has anything to add to it. (more languages, alternative names) (Judeo-Arabic languages listed under their dialect name, or another identifying name) Bukharic (Judeo-Tajik, Bokharic, Bukharian, Bokharan, Bukharan) Catalanic (Judeo-Catalan) Dzhidi (Judeo-Persian, Judeo-Farsi) Hebrew [ancient, modern] Hulaul (Judeo-Aramaic, Lishana Noshan, Lishana Axni, Jabali, Kurdit, Galiglu, 'aramit, (ARAMIT, Hula Hula) Judeo-Berber (alternate names?)

Date: Tue, 23 Oct 2001 23:29 
From: George Jochnowitz <jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu> 
Subject: Re: A number of questions (dictionaries, lists)

Judeo-Italian is called "Lason Akodesh" in Turin, "Ghettaiolo" in Ferrara, and "Bagito" in Leghorn. Judeo-Provencal has been called "Shuadit," also spelled "Chouadit," "Chuadit," or "Chouadite. George Jochnowitz

Date: Wed, 24 Oct 2001 01:36 
From: Mark Williamson <aaaboyz1 @ hotmail.com> 
Subject: Sorry!

Assuming you all saw my last message, I'd like to finish it (my Hotmail sent accidentally, and I was not finished). So here it is: First of all, I have a list of Jewish languages that I have compiled from various sources, and was wondering if anybody has anything to add to it. Also, I have added the responses recieved while finishing the list (to resend it in full) (more languages, alternative names) Aramaic Arvit (Judeo-Arabic) [Judeo-Morrocan Arabic, Judeo-Tunisian Arabic, Judeo-Yemeni Arabic (Judeo-Yemeni, Yemenite Judeo-Arabic), Yahudic (Iraqi Judeo-Arabic, Jewish Iraqi-Baghdadi Arabic, Arabi), Yudi (Tripolitanian Judeo-Arabic, Jewish Tripolitanian Arabic, Tripolita'it) Bik (Judeo-Tat, Judeo-Tatik, Jewish Tat, Dzhuhuric, Juwri, Juhuri) Bukharic (Judeo-Tajik, Bokharic, Bukharian, Bokharan, Bukharan) Catalanic (Judeo-Catalan) Dzhidi (Judeo-Persian, Judeo-Farsi) Gruzinic (Judeo-Georgian) Hebrew [ancient, modern] Hulaul (Judeo-Aramaic, Lishana Noshan, Lishana Axni, Jabali, Kurdit, Galiglu, 'aramit, `aramit, Hula Hula) Italkian (Judeo-Italian, Lason Akodesh, Ghettaiolo, Bagito) Judeo-Berber (alternate names?) Karaim Knaanic (Judeo-Czech, Judeo-Slavic, Canaanic, Leshon Knaan Krimchak (Judeo-Crimean Tatar, Judeo-Turkish) Ladino (Judeo-Spanish, Judezmo, Dzhudezmo, Safardi, Spanyol, Haquetiya, Dzudezmo, Dzudio) Lish n Didn (Lishan n, Lishanid Nash Didn, Persian Azerbaijan Jewish Aramaic, Lakhlokhi, Galihalu) Lishana Deni (Judeo-Aramaic, Lishan Hudaye, Lishan Hozaye, Kurdit) Lishanid Noshan (Arbili Neo-Aramaic, Lishana Did n, Hulani, Kurdit, Galigalu, Jbeli, Hula'ula) Shuadit (Judeo-Provinal, Judeo-Comtadine, Chouadit, Chuadit, Chouadite, Shuadi) Yevanic (Judeo-Greek, Yevanitika, Romaniot) Yiddish (Judeo-German) Zarphatic (Judeo-French) ---------------------------------------------- OK, my next question is: Are there any existing dictionaries or dictionaries being written for Jewish languages other than Hebrew, Yiddish, and Ladino? I do know that some of these are extinct (some extinct are used for liturgical purposes), such as Knaanic. -Mark

Date: Wed, 24 Oct 2001 07:26 
From: Benjamin H. Hary <bhary @ learnlink.emory.edu> 
Subject: Re: Sorry!

aaaboyz1 @ hotmail.com writes: > Are there any existing dictionaries or dictionaries > being written for Jewish languages other than Hebrew, Yiddish, and > Ladino? Joshua Blau is finishing an extensive dictionary of Medieval Judeo-Arabic. There are some other attempts at dictionaries or word lists for later Judeo-Arabic periods, including one of mine on later Egyptian JA. ************************************************** Benjamin Hary, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Hebrew, Arabic and Linguistics AT Tel Aviv University for Fall 2001: 50 Dizengoff Street, Apt 1906 IL-64332 Tel Aviv, Israel Tel/Fax: 011-972-3-528-0423; Mobile: 011-972-55-905636 CoSIH: The Corpus of Spoken Israeli Hebrew: http://spinoza.tau.ac.il/hci/dep/semitic/cosih.html **************************************************

Date: Wed, 24 Oct 2001 05:13 
From: Tsuguya Sasaki <tsuguya @ gol.com> 
Subject: Re: Dictionaries

F

Mark Williamson wrote: > Are there any existing dictionaries or dictionaries being written for > Jewish languages other than Hebrew, Yiddish, and Ladino? I would like to remind you that in addition to dictionaries of individual Jewish languagues, there is also a very important project to compile a synoptic dictionary of the Hebrew and Aramaic component in the Jewish languages of the Mediterranean basin and the Middle East, initiated by our teacher Prof. Shelomo Morag z"l at the Jewish Oral Traditions Research Center in Jerusalem: http://www.hum.huji.ac.il/masorot/dictionary_e.html http://www.hum.huji.ac.il/masorot/dictionary_h.html Tsuguya Sasaki tsuguya @ gol.com http://www2.gol.com/users/tsuguya/

Date: Wednesday, 24 Oct 2001 16:56 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: names for languages

A useful article for you is Leonard Prager's "A Preliminary Checklist of English Names of Jewish Lects." It's in Jewish Language Review 6, 1986. This journal was edited by David Gold and Leonard Prager and published in Haifa from 1981-1987 by the Association for the Study of Jewish Languages, which no longer exists. The article spends 10 pages listing names of languages and determining whether they are recommended or rejected. For example, he recommends Judezmo, Yiddish, Ancient Jewish Greek, Shuadit, Zarfatic, Jewish English, and Jidi, but he rejects Targumic, Marathic, Western Loez, and all the Judeo-X names. He explains the logic of his choices and gives references for the originators of glottonyms, where he can. It seems that he uses "Jewish X" to refer to "the Jewish correlate of (Modern) X, insofar as it differs from that of non-Jews." I don't agree with all his choices (as you can see from all the Judeo-X names on our website), but I certainly appreciate that he put this list together. I highly recommend that anyone interested in Jewish languages check out this journal. -Sarah Bunin Benor

Date: Thu, 25 Oct 2001 11:40 
From: Yona Sabar <sabar @ humnet.ucla.edu> 
Subject: Fwd: Re: A number of questions (dictionaries, lists)

> Date: Tue, 23 Oct 2001 20:19:34 -0700 > From: Yona Sabar sabar @ humnet.ucla.edu > Subject: Re: A number of questions (dictionaries, lists) > Cc: > Bcc: > X-Attachments: > > Re Hulaula, etc. - just use Jewish Neo-Aramaic dialects (because > there is also Christian Neo-Aramaic dialects) - and this is the name > used by all the scholars at present. The other names you mention > are either totally wrong (e.g. Kurdit) or just folkloric identifier, > e.g., Galli-Gallox (!) meaning "with me-with you", that is to say > that the speakers use this preposition, whereas in another dialect > they use immi-immox, etc. Compare British spelling "colour" vs. our > American "color". Shall we call the British English "the U English"?? Yona Sabar

Date: Thu, 25 Oct 2001 14:13 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: suggestion from Bernard Spolsky

Date: Thu, 25 Oct 2001 08:38:02 +0200 From: Bernard Spolsky spolsb @ mail.biu.ac.il It would be very useful if someone put together and posted somewhere an updated list, not attempting to make judgments as to what is the "correct" name or even as to the existence of the variety, but simply with citations of use. Bernard Spolsky

Date: Thursday, 25 Oct 2001 14:11 
From: Yona Sabar <sabar @ humnet.ucla.edu> 
Subject: Dictionaries

Scholarly glossaries and dictionaries for Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialects: Good glossaries in books by: 1) Irene Garbell, the Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialects of Persian Azerbaijan (The Hague, 1965); 2) Geoffrey Khan, . A Grammar of Neo-Aramaic, The Dialect of the Jews of Arbel, Leiden, 1999.; 3) Hezi Mutzafi, The Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Koy Sanjaq (Iraqi Kurdistan), Phonology, Morphology, Text, and Glossary, Ph. D. Thesis, Tel-Aviv University, 2000; 4) Yona Sabar, A Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dictionary, (BASED ON OLD AND NEW MANUSCRIPTS, ORAL AND WRITTEN BIBLE TRANSLATIONS, FOLKLORIC TEXTS, AND SPOKEN REGISTERS, WITH AN INTRODUCTION TO GRAMMAR AND SEMANTICS, AND AN INDEX OF TALMUDIC WORDS WHICH HAVE REFLEXES IN JEWISH NEO-ARAMAIC), forthcomng. There are also two non-scholarly dictionaries (in Hebrew): 1) Shilo, V., 1995, Milon `Ivri-Arami-Ashuri be-lahag Yehude Zakho [= Hebrew Neo-Aramaic:Zakho], Jerusalem. 2) Yona, M., 1999. Milon Arami-Kurdi-`Ivri [=Kurdish Aramaic-Hebrew Dictionary, i.e., Jewish Neo-Aramaic of Zakho], Jerusalem. Yona Sabar P.S. The next list should be about grammar books for Jewish languages.

Date: Thu, 25 Oct 2001 16:02 
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu> 
Subject: More Dictionaries

Dear Fellow Listers, I am forwarding a few references for Judeo-Italian and Judeo-French lexicography; while not complete, it should give a reasonable idea of works dealing with the topic. Note that not all works are dedicated exclusively to lexicography, but contain useful glossaries or other wordlists. Best to all, Seth BIBLIOGRAPHY (to 1989) Wexler, Paul Judeo-Romance linguistics : a bibliography (Latin, Italo-, Gallo, Ibero-, and Rhaeto-Romance except Castilian). New York : Garland Pub., 1989. Garland reference library of the humanities ; vol. 890 JUDEO-FRENCH Banitt, Menahem -Le glossaire de Bâle [Sefer ha-pitronot mi-Bazel]. Jérusalem, Académie nationale des sciences et des lettres d'Israël, 1972. Corpus glossariorum Biblicorum Hebraico-Gallicorum Medii Aevi, tomus 1. -Le glossaire de Leipzig. Jérusalem : Académie nationale des sciences et des lettres d'Israël, c1995- Corpus glossariorum Biblicorum Hebraico-Gallicorum Medii Aevi ; tomus 2 Blondheim, David S. -Essai d'un vocabulaire comperatif des parlers Romans des juifs au moyen age, in Romania, vol.49, pp.1-43, 344-388, 527-569, Paris, 1923. Levy, Raphael -Contribution à la lexicographie française selon d'anciens textes d'origine juive. Syracuse University Press, 1960. -Recherches lexicographiques sur d'anciens textes français d'origine juive. Baltimore, Md., The Johns Hopkins Press; Paris, Société d'édition "Les Belles-lettres"; 1932. -Trésor de la langue des juifs français au moyen âge. Austin : University of Texas Press, 1964. JUDEO-ITALIAN GENERAL Massariello Merzagora, Giovanna -Giudeo-italiano : dialetti italiani parlati dagli Ebrei d'Italia. Pisa : Pacini, 1977. Profilo dei dialetti italiani. 23 Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Centro di studio per la dialettologia italiana 5. Colorni, Vittore -La parlata degli ebrei Mantuani, in: Rassegna Mensile di Israel, 37, 1971, (Scritti in memoria di A. Milan), pp. 109-64. Cuomo, Luisa -Una traduzione giudeo-Romanesca del libro di Giona, Beihefte zur Zeitschrift fur Romanische Philologie, Band 215, Max Niemeyer Verlag, Tubingen 1988. -Le glosse volgari nell'"Arukh" di R. Natan ben Yehi'el da Roma; interferenze lessicali e semantiche. Italia 13-15 (2001) 25-52. -Le glosse volgari nell'"Arukh" di R. Natan ben Yehi'el da Roma. Medioevo Romanzo 22,2 (1998) 232-283. De Benedetti-Stow, Sandra Romano, Judah ben Moses ben Daniel, 14th cent. -La chiarificazione in volgare delle espressioni difficili ricorrenti nel Misnèh Toràh di Mosé Maimonide. Centro ricerche e studi delle testimonianze medievali e moderne del giudaismo italiano , Roma : Carucci editore,1990 Del Monte, Crescenzo -Sonetti postumi giudaico-romaneschi e romaneschi; Glossario dei vocaboli e delle espressioni di origine ebraica nel dialetto giudaico-romanesco di Attilio Milano. Prefazione di Benvenuto Terracini. Casa Editrice "Israel", 1955. Dibber Tob, Venice, 1588 Fiorentino, Giuliana -Note lessicali al Maqré Dardeqé, in: AGI, 29, 1937, pp.138-59. -Il Maqré Dardeqé e alcune questioni generali sullo studio delle parlate giudeo-italiane (English translation in: Jewish Quarterly Review 42, 1951-52, pp.57-77). Fortis, Umberto, Paolo Zolli -La parlata giudeo-veneziana Assisi ; Roma : B. Carucci, 1979. Maqré Dardeqé , Naples 1488 Meyer-Modena, M.L., Massariello-Merzagora, G., -Il giudeo-Modenese nei testi raccolti da R..Giacomelli, in: Rendiconti dell'Istituto Lombardo, Accademia di Scienze e Lettere, Classe di Lettere 107, 1973, pp.863-938. Rieti, Moses da -Mosé da Rieti: Filosofia naturale e Fatti de Dio (ed. I. Hijmans-Tromp), Leiden 1989. Sermoneta, Giuseppe (Joseph) -Il Libro delle forme verbali, compendio vogare del Mahala`kh Sevile' ha-da'ath di M.R.J. Qimchi, in: Scritti in memoria di L.Carpi, Jerusalem 1967, pp.1-29. -Un glossario filosofico ebraico italiano del XIII secolo, Rome 1969. Terracini, Benvenuto -Residui di parlate giudeo-italiane raccolti a Pitigliano, Roma e Ferrara, in: Rassegna Mensile di Israel, 13, 1951, pp.1-11,63-72, 113-21. -Le parlate giudaico-italiane negli appunti di R. Giacomelli, in: Rassegna Mensile di Israel, 28, 1962 (Volume in memoria di F. Luzzatto), pp. 260-95. For manuscript and early printed glossaries relative to the Bible, see: Cassuto, Umberto Bibliografia delle traduzioni giudeo-italiane della Bibbia, in: Festschrift zum siebziegsten Geburstage Armand Kaminska, Vienna, 1937, pp.129-41. ************************************************* Seth Jerchower Public Services Librarian Center for Judaic Studies University of Pennsylvania 420 Walnut Street Philadelphia, PA 19106 Tel: (215) 238-1290, ext. 203 Fax: (215) 238-1540 sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu http://www.library.upenn.edu/cjs/ ************************************************* " Proverai tua ventura fra' magnanimi pochi a chi 'l ben piace. Di' lor: « Chi m'assicura? I' vo gridando: Pace, pace, pace. » "

Date: Thu, 25 Oct 2001 19:07 
From: David Grossman <davidg @ macam.ac.il> 
Subject: Re: Dictionaries

Can we also have references to on-line Aramaic dictionaries? I have been looking for a long time, but I haven't found any. David Grossman

Date: Thu, Oct 25, 2001 20:03 
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu> 
Subject: Re: Dictionaries

The only "on-line" dictionary of any type I'm aware of is the COMPREHENSIVE ARAMAIC LEXICON (CAL) at HUC (http://cal1.cn.huc.edu/index.html), edited by Stephen A. Kaufman, Joseph A. Fitzmyer, and Michael Sokoloff. Unfortunately, the interface is romanized, but I obtained some results. I inserted the root dhb and received the following output: CAL Outline Lexicon: GENERAL dhb dhb N dhb) 1 passim gold 2 Syr alloy of gold and silver 3 Syr gold coin 4 Syr money LS2 142 LS2 v: dahbA) dhb#2 N dhb) 1 Palestinian,Syr goldsmith LS2 142 LS2 v: dahAbA R dhb dhb V 041 Syr to be gilded 031 Syr to gild LS2 142 It is also possible to search by a number of pre-defined varieties. You may also wish to visit the Beth Mardutho website (http://www.bethmardutho.org/ - distributes Unicode Syriac fonts) and the The International Organization for Targumic Studies website (http://www.tulane.edu/~ntcs/IOTS/index.html). Kol Tuv, Seth ************************************************* Seth Jerchower Public Services Librarian Center for Judaic Studies University of Pennsylvania 420 Walnut Street Philadelphia, PA 19106 Tel: (215) 238-1290, ext. 203 Fax: (215) 238-1540 sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu http://www.library.upenn.edu/cjs/ ************************************************* " Proverai tua ventura fra' magnanimi pochi a chi 'l ben piace. Di' lor: « Chi m'assicura? I' vo gridando: Pace, pace, pace. » "

Date: Fri, 26 Oct 2001 05:59 
From: David Grossman <davidg @ macam.ac.il> 
Subject: Re: Dictionaries

Thank you, Seth. I've been searching the Web for a very long time for Aramaic on-line dictionaries, and this is the first set of workable resources that I have received. I'm looking forward to the next stage resources: non-Romanized text. David Grossman

Date: Sat, 27 Oct 2001 14:44 
From: David Grossman <davidg @ macam.ac.il> 
Subject: Re: Dictionaries

I assume that you are referring to the language known in Israel as Maroka'it, and not to Ladino. Do you know of any relevant on-line dictionaries? David Grossman

Date: Sun, 28 Oct 2001 10:23 
From: Yaakov Bentolila <bentoli @ bgumail.bgu.ac.il> 
Subject: Re: Dictionaries

No, what is known as Maroka'it is Moroccan Judeo-ARABIC. Haketiya is Moroccan Judeo-SPANISH, a variety of LADINO (a western variety vs the eastern JUDEZMO), if you agree to call LADINO a vernacular language. As you know, Prof. Sefiha-Vidal has made the distinction between Ladino, which is a litterary language, a "mot a mot" traduction from Hebrew texts, and JUDEZMO (or Judeo-Spanish, or Haketiya, or whatever), which are the spoken vernacular (or even litterary, but not calques) varieties. I don't know of any on-line Kaketic dictionnary... Yaakov Bentolila

Date: Wed, 24 Oct 2001 09:50 
From: David Grossman <davidg @ macam.ac.il> 
Subject: Re: Sorry!

The Hebrew Translating forum, which I moderate, has an extensive listing of all on-line Hebrew, Yiddish, and other Jewish-oriented Semitic-language dictionaries. The list is accessible to all subscribers to Hebrew Translating, and it is is regularly updated by submissions from our subscribers. David Grossman

Date: Mon, 29 Oc 2001 06:42 
From: David Grossman <davidg @ macam.ac.il> 
Subject: Re: Sorry!

Since posting this message to Jewish-Languages, I've been inundated with requests for information about the Hebrew Translating Forum. Information about the Hebrew Translating Forum is available by clicking on Hebrew Translating at http://www.geocities.com/jewishgroups. That same website gives information about other forums in Hebrew and in Hebrew bilingualism, as well as other topics. Subscribers to the Hebrew Translating Forum have access to the full and constantly updated listing of on-line dictionaries, glossaries, and other linguistic resources. This information was recently enhanced thanks to the fine and knowledgeable subscribers to our splendid Jewish Languages group. David Grossman

November 2001

Date: Sun, 04 Nov 2001 15:25 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: language during the Holocaust

A question from Alison Bastow, who's not on the list. Please respond directly to her at the address below. I am a graduate student and am working on a project concerning language use during the Holocaust. While I have found numerous sources for the Nazi corruption of language during this time, I have found very little in regard to Jewish language/changes that may have occurred. Could you point me in the direction of some resource or person that may be able to give me information on this? Thank You, Alison Bastow tpbasb @ bellsouth.net

Date: Sun, 04 Nov 2001 15:58 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Session on Language and Ideology - Israeli Association

---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Sun, 04 Nov 2001 15:55:50 +0200 From: Ron Kuzar kuzar @ research.haifa.ac.il Subject: Session on Language and Ideology Call for Papers: The Israeli Association for the Study of Language and Society is holding its Annual Meeting on Sunday-Monday, May 5-6, 2002, at Tel-Aviv University. The general theme of the conference is "Language and Identity in a Multicultural Society". I have been asked to organize a session on "Language and Ideology". Papers in this session may be purely theoretical or they may be case studies, keeping an attentive eye on their general theoretical horizon. Naturally, some of the speakers will discuss issues of Israeli society, but other topics are equally welcome. I look at this session as an opportunity to exchange ideas on the very nexus of language and ideology and its theoretical foundations. Some points I find worthy of discussion are: * the extent to which the study of language and ideology is a multidisciplinary project. * Centrality and marginality in the interaction between ideological metanarratives, such as class, race, ethnicity, religion, gender, nationalism, [post]colonialism, regional identity, globalization. * The nature of communication between the oppressor and the oppressed. * The discourse of building coalitions and fronts: attitudes towards variation, partial disagreement, and mutual critique. * The role of cognitive constructs (metaphors, etc.) in a more general theory of language and ideology. * The stability/variability of ideologies, and the linguistic encoding of multiplicity/change. * The specific role of linguistics in the general study of ideology. * Discursive harmony between (supposedly) different ideologies. The language of the conference is Hebrew, and due to budgetary limitations there will be no interpreting service available, but lectures in English are welcome. (If there are enough English speaking participants, others may be willing to present in English as well.) Please send preliminary letters of interest or queries to me by December 1, 2001. The deadline for submitting abstracts to be included in the conference booklet has been set to February 28, 2002. Posted to cogling, critics-l, discours, funknet, language & culture, and linganth. Feel free to distribute to other relevant forums. ==================================== Dr. Ron Kuzar Address: Department of English Language and Literature University of Haifa IL-31905 Haifa, Israel Office: +972-4-824-9826, fax: +972-4-824-9711 Home: +972-2-6414780, Cellular: +972-5-481-9676 Email: kuzar @ research.haifa.ac.il Site: http://research.haifa.ac.il/~kuzar ====================================

Date: Mon, 05 Nov 2001 13:15 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Session on Dialectology in Israel - Israeli Association

From: Benjamin H. Hary bhary @ Emory.Edu Call for Papers: The Israeli Association for the Study of Language and Society is holding its Annual Meeting on Sunday-Monday, May 5-6, 2002, at Tel-Aviv University. The general theme of the conference is "Language and Identity in a Multicultural Society". I have been asked to organize a session on "Dialects in Israel." I look at this session as an opportunity to exchange ideas on the use of dialects in Israel and its connection to the society. Some ideas: * the use of dialects among Hebrew speakers (Haredi speech, "Ramat-Aviv Gimel" speech etc.) * the use of Jewish languages/ethnolects/dialects in Israel * Arabic dialects in Israel: geographical and sociological * The role of English/French/Russian/Amharic dialects in Israel * dialectology variety in Israel * the connection between use of dialects and ideology, society behavior,etc. The language of the conference is Hebrew, and due to budgetary limitations there will be no interpreting service available, but lectures in English are welcome. (If there are enough English speaking participants, others may be willing to present in English as well.) Please send preliminary letters of interest or queries to me (e-mail) by December 20, 2001. The deadline for submitting abstracts to be included in the conference booklet has been set to February 28, 2002. Benjamin Hary bhary @ emory.edu

Date: Fri, 09 Nov 2001 14:00 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Shuadit, Hebrew Dictionaries

2 queries from H-Judaic. Please respond to those who posted. -Sarah From: R Toubes rtoubes @ hotmail.com Subject: Query: Shuadit music I am a 3rd year cantorial student and I am doing some preliminary research for my thesis. I am wondering if anyone on this listserv can help me with the topic of Shuadit/Judeo-provencal. I am specifically interested in whether there is any surviving music written in Shuadit, as I understand it is essentially an extinct language. Also: I read on a statistics website that there is an expert in this language named Paul Wexler, and I was wondering if anyone has contact with him. Thank you so very much, Rosalie Toubes rtoubes @ hotmail.com ------------------------------ From: Jonathan Omer-Man jomerman @ pipeline.com Subject: Dictionaries I have three questions, and would appreciate any help from participants in this group. 1. What comprehensive Hebrew-Hebrew dictionaries are available now. Are any of them available on CD? 2. What Hebrew-Arabic Arabic-Hebrew dictionaries are recommended and available? 3. Is there a comprehensive lexicon of Hebrew-Arabic cognates? Thank you, Jonathan Omer-Man

Date: Mon, 12 Nov 2001 17:14 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Israeli Association

The Israeli Association for the Study of Language and Society announces its new website: http://www.tau.ac.il/~ials In addition, this association has a mailing list. You can register at: http://post.tau.ac.il/archives/il-langsoc.html For more information, contact Eliezer Ben-Rafael saba @ post.tau.ac.il. -Sarah Bunin Benor

Date: Wed, 14 Nov 2001 11:37 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: IALS annual conference

Message from: Yitzhak Sternberg sternber @ post.tau.ac.il Secretary of IALS Dear colleague, Kindly note that the first annual conference of the Israeli Association for the Study of Language and Society (IALS) will be held in Tel Aviv University, May 5-6 2002. The conference's theme is "Language and Identity in a Multicultural Society". The conference, as the association itself, is open to scholars and people who are interested in the variety of aspects related to the connections between language and society. The conference is organized around main topics such as: language and identity; language, culture and society; multilingualism and multiculturalism; Jewish and non-Jewish languages; language and globalization; language and education; language and immigration; language and stratification; language and ideology; language and communication; language and gender; language and the life-cycle; language policy. The conference is also open to non-Israeli participants. Please note that the deadline for sending session proposals is January 15 2002 and the deadline for sending article abstracts is February 28 2002. The relevant forms, as well as other information about IALS, are available in our website: www.tau.ac.il/~ials Cordially, Eliezer Ben-Rafael Chair of IALS

Date: Wed, 14 Nov 2001 12:41 
From: Yona Sabar <sabar @ humnet.ucla.edu> 
Subject: Fwd: Re: IALS annual conference

Dear Colleagues, The conference's theme is excellent, but, alas, the time is bad for scholars from the USA. It is practically impossible to travel all the way from California to Israel and back when the academic school is still going on. Our school ends only after June 15. A summer conference enables us to attend the conference and stay in Israel a longer period for a visit and scholarly work. I hope you'll take this into consideration in planning future conferences. shalom ve-khol Tuv, Yona Sabar

Date: Wed, 14 Nov 2001 13:42 
From: Hayim Sheynin <hsheynin @ gratz.edu> 
Subject: Re: IALS annual conference

I second Prof. Sabar's opinion. It is very difficult for the persons employed by American academic institutions to travel to Israel before end of June. Dr. Hayim Y. Sheynin Adjunct Professor of Jewish Literature Head of Reference Services Tuttleman Library of Gratz College 7605 Old York Rd. Melrose Park, PA 19027 tel. 215 635-7300, ext. 161 fax: 215 635-7320 e-mail: hsheynin @ gratz.edu

Date: Wed, 14 Nov 2001 16:02 
From: Miriam Isaacs <misaacs @ wam.umd.edu> 
Subject: Re: IALS annual conference

The conference is very important and interesting but is problemmatic for those of us who teach in the US and perhaps other places. It is probably too late to change the dates- and this problem is not news to the organizers. Perhaps a parallel conference can be held in tandem on this continent. One aspect of multiculturalism is working with conflicting calendars. Miriam Isaacs Miriam Isaacs, Meyerhoff Center for Jewish Studies Office phone # 301 405 0264

Date: Sun, 25 Nov 2001 22:00 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Call for papers: Jewish varieties of contemporary languages

Jews often have unique ways of speaking their local language. Jewish varieties of English, French, Spanish, Russian, and Turkish, for example, include influences in lexicon, syntax, phonology, and discourse from Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, and/or Judeo-Arabic. I am coordinating a panel on this phenomenon for the first Annual Meeting of the Israeli Association for the Study of Language and Society. Questions to be addressed by this panel include: · What can contemporary Jewish varieties of English, French, etc., tell us about the development of Jewish languages? · What can they tell us about the communities that speak them? · What role does ideology play in the development of these varieties? · What social factors (e.g., religiosity, learnedness, gender, interaction with non-Jews, generation since immigration) affect variation within these varieties? · Can these varieties be considered Jewish languages? The conference will take place May 5-6, 2002, at Tel-Aviv University in Israel. The general theme of the conference is Language and Identity in a Multicultural Society. Conference papers may be presented in Hebrew or English. To submit a paper to this panel, please send a preliminary description of your paper to Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> by December 20, 2001. Final abstracts will be due to the Association in February. Sarah Bunin Benor Stanford University

Date: Thu, 29 Nov 2001 11:33 
From: judy <baumelj @ mail.biu.ac.il> 
Subject: introduction

Dear List, This is a short introduction. My name is Simeon D. (Shimon) Baumel and I am a doctoral candidate at Bar-Ilan University in Israel. My research deals with the language policy of ethnic minorities as influenced by social, political, religious and economic constraints and I am specializing in the language policies of four Haredi groups in Israel. In addition, I have dealt with speakers of Judeo-Tat in Israel, with teaching English in Haredi schools in Israel, with language and Haredi publications (newspapers, magazines, and weekly Torah Portion Pages distributed in many synagoguges) and with sexist language in general Israeli advertising. I've also dealt with photooxidation of organic compounds (I was originally an M.A. research organic chemist before becoming a linguist - shades of William Labov...)

December 2001

Date: Sat, 01 Dec 2001 23:18 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: AJS coming up

The Association for Jewish Studies is having its 33rd annual conference in Washington, DC, December 16-18. There are 2 sessions on Jewish languages: Jewish Languages and Identity Chair: Lewis H. Glinert (Dartmouth College) Writing in Yiddish: Marginalization and Language Choices Miriam Isaacs (University of Maryland) Eastern European Karaite Identity: A Case of Linguistically Motivated De-Judaization Dan Shapira (The Open University of Israel) "Are We Not Just an Anachronism?": Language and Identity among Israeli Sephardim Jill Lara Kushner (UCLA) "Talmid chachams" and "tsedeykeses": Language, Learnedness, and Masculinity among Orthodox Jews Sarah Bunin Benor (Stanford University) ------------------------------------------------------------- Language and Sacred Text Chair and Commentator: Frederick E. Greenspahn (University of Denver) The Proverbs in Their Making in the Biblical Narrative Text Katya Rempel (Moscow State University) Linguistic Tension in Judeo-Arabic Sacred Texts Benjamin H. Hary (Emory University) Observations on the Current State of Judeo-Italian Corpus Studies Seth Jerchower (University of Pennsylvania) Sacred Texts in Judeo-Italian and Judeo-Provençal George Jochnowitz (College of Staten Island) --------------------------------------------------------- For more information, check out the website at http://www.brandeis.edu/ajs/2001AJS33.html -Sarah Bunin Benor

Date: Tue, 04 Dec 2001 15:30 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: `ayin in Yiddish and Judeo-Italian

There was recently a small discussion on H-Judaic, the Jewish Studies list, about the realization of `ayin as [n] in Yiddish (as in "yankev" and "maanse"). Someone suggested that it is a transfer from Judeo-Italian. Does anyone know if there's evidence of this? Is it possible that "maanse," "yankev," and other words that have this [n] just represent a remnant of the original `ayin? What historical evidence is there to support the contact theory? Is it possible that Italian teachers in Central and Eastern Europe brought words with this [n] to Yiddish? Or could this influence have come about in a city like Venice where Ashkenazim lived near Italian Jews? Are there other influences from Judeo-Italian to Yiddish (maybe Yente < Gentille)? What about influences from Yiddish to Judeo-Italian (like yorsay < yortsayt, xamisusa < khamishoser)? It might be interesting to do a comparative study of the realization of `ayin in various Jewish languages and to look at this as a possible locus of Jewish language contact. Maybe a panel topic for a future conference on Jewish languages... -Sarah Bunin Benor

Date: Tue, 04 Dec 2001 16:32 
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu> 
Subject: Re: `ayin in Yiddish and Judeo-Italian

Hi Sarah, I'm not completely connvinced that the /N\/ and /N/ pronunciations/articulations are "natively" Italian; IMHO the best treatment to date is to be found in: Author Loprieno, Antonio Title Observations on the traditional pronunciation of Hebrew among Italian Jews In Semitic Studies (1991) 931-948 Source Semitic Studies, in Honor of Wolf Leslau. Vol. I-II. Ed. by Alan S. Kaye. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1991 See you in Washington, Best, Seth ************************************************* Seth Jerchower Public Services Librarian Center for Judaic Studies University of Pennsylvania 420 Walnut Street Philadelphia, PA 19106 Tel: (215) 238-1290, ext. 203 Fax: (215) 238-1540 sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu http://www.library.upenn.edu/cjs/ ************************************************* " Proverai tua ventura fra' magnanimi pochi a chi 'l ben piace. Di' lor: « Chi m'assicura? I' vo gridando: Pace, pace, pace. » "

Date: Wed, 05 Dec 2001 03:32 
From: Yona Sabar <sabar @ humnet.ucla.edu> 
Subject: &ayin in Yiddish and Judeo-Italian

Regardless of the pronunciation of &ayin in Judeo-Italian and other Jewish languages, the Yiddish word that started the discussion, to my mind has nothing to do with the pronunciation of &ayin. Here is my original comment to H-Judaic: Re: yandes - See Max Weinreich, History of the Yiddish Language (Chicago, 1980), p. 196: yidishkeit (Jewishness) is a general Yiddish word and yaades is only regional -among Polish Jews in the form of ya:ndes; in addition the word has no specific Jewishness meaning; it means 'conscience'; and in p. 222: yandes 'risk, conscience' For its etymology see Uriel Weinreich, Modern English-Yiddish Yiddish-English Dictionary, 1977, p. 589: YHDWT =yaades Judaism > p. 590: YAND&S = nerve, gall; conscience. I wonder if the meanings 'conscience', etc. are not a result of 'contamination' of YAHDWT and YD&NWT (=yadones) 'know how' < YD&N (=yadn) 'savant, expert, knowledgeable person' (both listed in U. Weinreich, p. 589). What I mean is that the meaning 'conscience' as well as the spelling with &ayin are the probable influence of YD&NWT = Hebrew yad&anut, Yiddish yadones on YAHDWT/yaades + metathesis. Obviously in traditional Jewish community yad&anut meant "(Jewish) expertise", hence a synonym of "Jewishness"? -- Yona Sabar, Professor of Hebrew and Aramaic Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1511 (home) 310-474-6430 (office) 310-206-1389 Fax: to Prof. Sabar at (310) 206-6456.

Date: Wed, 05 Dec 2001 11:24 
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu> 
Subject: Re: `ayin in Yiddish and Judeo-Italian

In addition to yesterday's posting, I would add two other basic works: Weinreich, Max. "The Jewish Languages of Romance Stock and their Relation to Earliest Yiddish." Romance Philology 9 (1956): 403-428. Weinreich, Uriel. Languages in contact., Findings and problems. 1968. Whether "Hamisciosceri" (for Tu be-Shvat < hameš esre) is a Yiddish loan is debatable. It may belie an earlier pronunciation of Palestinian derivation. Umberto Cassuto in his "Gli ebrei a Firenze nell'età del Rinascimento" indeed postulates a medieval native articulation of /s/ for [t] (ת), based on romanized onomastics: p. 237 and note 6: "Jekutiel" è reso con l'italiano "Consiglio". Fra i due nomi si troverà una certa analogia fonetica ove si pronunzi il "t" (ת) di "Jekutiel", secondo ritengo si pronunziasse forse in tempi remoti anche in Italia, e secondo si pronunzia oggi dagli ebre tedeschi e polacchi, come "s". (6 - Non è qui il luogo di esporre per esteso i motivi di questa mia congettura circa la pronunzia primitiva della ת in Italia, almeno nelle provincie meridionali. Mi limiterò a rilevare che il nome "Nathan" appare in documenti dell'Italia meridionale nella forma "Nasan" o "Nasas". Cfr. quel che diremo più avanti a proposito del nome "Mattathia". p. 238 and note 5: A "Mattathia" (biblicamente "Mattithia" o "Mattithiahu") corrsiponde l'italiano "Mattasia" ("Mactasia", "Matassia") (5 - Per Vitale di Mattasia = Jehiel ben Mattathia da Pisa v. "La famiglia da Pisa", p. 3, 12-15. Non conoscendo questo sistema di rendere il nome ebraico "Mattathia", Vogelstein-Rieger, op. cit., p. 123, restano incerti circa l'interpretazione del nome Davicciolus Mactasie, e propongono di vedervi designato un "mattatore"). Se si ammette che la pronunzia della ת ebraica, secondo fu detto più sopra a proposito di "Jekutiel", sia stata in tempi remoti "s" anche in Italia, non si tratterà qui che della forma italiana derivata dal nome ebraico. Also, with regards to the "Nayin" (which in Rome is also palatalized), it was not uncommon for Italian Christian Hebraists prior to 1500 ca. to transcribe it as "hain" (of the top of my head, I don't recall how Aldus describes it in the editio princeps of "Alphabetum Hebraicum", ca. 1501". In an autograph notebook (Bibl. Laurenzian cod. Laur. 29.8,c - 45 verso) Boccaccio copied the Hebrew alphabet, with the names of each letter. One could argue that the initial "h" was simply a transcription, akin to greek (which he also records --twice!-- on the same leaf) spiritus asper, and similarly one could attribute the ת as /s/ to an Ashkenazic enclave in southern Italy (such as the printer Azriel ben Yosef Ashkenazi Guntsenhozer, active in Naples in the late 15th century, as well as the Soncinos; of course, much of Boccaccio's career was spent in Naples, and at the time, in Florence, the community was not yet officially in existence [founded in 1437], although there were certainly other Jewish presences in Tuscany). Definitive proofs as to accentuation, and to the pronunciation of ? and ? are therefore not available, and what evidence we may have is subject to discussion. What does seem to be an ancient relic, and at least within the context of western European Jewry exclusive to Italian Jews, is the articulation of the final ו as /w/ עליו = /Nalaw'/). Personally, I find Cassuto's postulation rather convincing, notwithstanding my above-listed objections (it would also add support that the Judeo-Italian word for God's name, דומידית in the earlier sources was derived and likely pronounced "Dome Des", from a Northern Italo-Romance "Domine Deus" (this was Sermoneta's [1969] opinion); interestingly, in the nominative, not a few early (10th -13th centuries) French Christian Bibles use the type "Damedex" (dondeu, damedeu, cas oblique; v. Trénel, Deuxième partie, p. 243 ss., esp. p. 245); Bonvesin de la Riva (Lombardy, prob. Milan, 13th cent.) also uses a similar form (I have the volume at home). This final "x" may have been both a linguistic and graphic source of the JI form (cf. the many Latin abbreviations in use, even the still noted and so called RX = ricepta, in which the crossed codal element at the end of the "R" actually stands for the "t" of the abbreviation). DomDed the pronunciation/equivocation of final ת as ד appears only from the 16th century on, contrary to the interpretive transcription ("Domaded") in Sermoneta CC 1974. At any rate, I find it enticing to think of Italian Hebrew pronunciation as containing all sorts of sub- and adstrata, as an excellent soil for linguistic archeology. SJ ************************************************* Seth Jerchower Public Services Librarian Center for Judaic Studies University of Pennsylvania 420 Walnut Street Philadelphia, PA 19106 Tel: (215) 238-1290, ext. 203 Fax: (215) 238-1540 sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu http://www.library.upenn.edu/cjs/ ************************************************* " Proverai tua ventura fra' magnanimi pochi a chi 'l ben piace. Di' lor: « Chi m'assicura? I' vo gridando: Pace, pace, pace. » " > Is it possible that Italian teachers in > Central and Eastern Europe brought words with this [n] to Yiddish? Or > could this influence have come about in a city like Venice where > Ashkenazim lived near Italian Jews? Are there other influences from > Judeo-Italian to Yiddish (maybe Yente < Gentille)? What about influences > from Yiddish to Judeo-Italian (like yorsay < yortsayt, xamisusa < > khamishoser)?

Date: Wed, 05 Dec 2001 14:24 
From: George Jochnowitz <jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu> 
Subject: Re: `ayin in Yiddish and Judeo-Italian

In the Judeo-Provencal pronunciation of Hebrew, thav (sav), samekh, and sin are all pronounced [f]. This is acoustically similar to _theta_, unvoiced interdental fricative. Shin is [s]. I would guess that Judeo-Italian [d] was once also an interdental fricative, perhaps voiced. In any event, it did not merge with either [s] or [t]. George Jochnowitz

Date: Wed, 05 Dec 2001 14:32 
From: George Jochnowitz <jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu> 
Subject: Fw: BOUNCE jewish-languages

In Northeast Yiddish, [a] followed by `ayin yields _ay_ (Yivo spelling). Thus we have NEY and Standard Yiddish _mayse_ and NEY _Yaynkev_. This suggests that perhaps there once was an intermediate stage when `ayin was a palatal nasal, as it is today in Northern Italy. George Jochnowitz

Date: Wed, 05 Dec 2001 14:41 
From: George Jochnowitz <jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu> 
Subject: afterthought

I believe that there are Jews in Amsterdam who pronounce `ayin as a velar nasal. George J

Date: Wed, 5 Dec 2001 23:44 
From: Gideon Goldenberg <msgidgol @ mscc.huji.ac.il> 
Subject: Re: `ayin in Yiddish and Judeo-Italian

&Ayin and [n] (ng) The nasal realization of &Ayin in the pronunciation of Hebrew by Italian Jews is briefly described in E. S. Artom, "Mivta ha-&Ivrit etzel Yehudei Italia", Leshonenu 15 (1946/7) 52-61. A general important reference about the pronunciation of Hebrew in various Jewish communities is the article "Pronunciations of Hebrew" by Shelomo Morag in Encyclopaedia Judaica XIII 1120-1145, where a comparative table and further bibliography will also be found. One may there learn that [n(g)] for &Ayin makes part of the pronunciation of Hebrew by Dutch-Portugese and Italian Jews. Morag (ibid. 1126) mentions the [n] as in "Yankev" or "maanse", but rightly makes clear that this is another phenomenon, not necessarily connected with &Ayin. The fact that [n] in such words is *not* the reflex of &Ayin was clearly shown by N. H. Torczyner (= Tur-Sinai), "Shir Se&uda me-Italia: Dugma le-mivta'am shel Yehudei Italia", Leshonenu 9 (1937/8) 49-55 = Id., Ha-Lashon ve-ha-Sefer I 175-181: The Ashkenazi [n] as in "Yankev" (or "Yaynkev") etc. will also be found in pronunciations of "asher" as [ansher], as well as in Yiddish pronunciations of German words, as in [maynst] "meist", [maynster] "Meister", [haynt] "heut(e)". It should be added that this kind of nasalization is (like most other non-Hebrew/Aramaic and non-Slavic features of Yiddish) far from being exclusively Jewish, and should be studied in the context of German dialectology. A physiological-phonetic explanation of nasality as a reflex of laryngals was given by P. Delattre in Phonetica 19 (1969) 72-73. Gideon Goldenberg ================================ Prof. Gideon Goldenberg 48 Ben-Maimon Avenue IL-92261 Jerusalem, Israel. Telephone (972-2-)5665135 Fax (972-2-)5634891 msgidgol @ pluto.mscc.huji.ac.il ================================

Date: Fri, 07 Dec 2001 10:17 
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu> 
Subject: From H-Judaica

Date: Wed, 5 Dec 2001 19:56:43 -0500 From: Howard Marblestone <marblesh @ lafayette.edu> Subject: RE: Loez in Hebrew Letters To the first part of Norman Simms' inquiry, 'rabbinic and extra-rabbinic theory in the Middle Ages' on 'writing out a vulgate language (loez) in Hebrew letters so as to make it seem at once in Hebrew and in, say, French or Italian': A celebrated example, not theory, of the practice is the poem *Kinah Shemor* on the death of Rabbi Moses della Rocca by Leon Modena, which the author describes thus in his autobiography, __Hayyei Yehuda__, translated by Mark R. Cohen in The Autobiography of a Seventeenth Century Venetian Rabbi. Leon Modena's Life of Judah (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988, p.87): ' ...Rabbi Moses della Rocca left us and went to Cyprus, where he was married. And while he was still in his youthful prime [terminus post quem 1584], he was called to the heavenly academy. When the bad news reached me, I wrote elegies for him, in particular one octet [which makes sense in both] Hebrew and Italian. It is entitled "Kinah Shemor", and it is printed in my book __Midbar Yehuda. I was then thirteen years of age. All the poets saw ity and praised it; to this day it is a marvel to both Christian and Jewish sages.' The valuable Historical Notes by Howard E. Adelman and Benjamin C. I. Ravid observe, p. 198: "Kinah shemor": in Italian "Chi nasce, muor"...Modena created a work, the first in Hebrew, that sounded the same and had approximately the same meaning in two completely unrelated languages, On this poem, see D. Pagis, 'Al sod hatum (Jerusalem 1986), pp. ix, 167; idem, "Baroque Trends in Italian Hebrew Poetry as Reflected in One Unknown Genre", in *Italia judaica 2, pp. 263-277....The text of "Kinah Shemor," in both Hebrew and Italian, is reproduced in Roth __[The Jews in the] Renaissance__ [Philadelphia: JPS, 1959], p. 307 Roth notes (ibid, pp. 306-308): 'Some writirs produced poems in which Hebrew and Italian lines figured alternately; a few managed to compose poems the phonetic sounds of which made equally good (or bad) sense whether read as Hebrew or Italian. The best known instance of this curious genre was an elegy written in 1584 by the irrepressible Leone Modena...[note 1] Modena's *tour de force* was imitated on a tombstone in the seventeenth century and plagiarized by the London Jewish physician Ephraim Luzzatto in the eighteenth.' Best wishes, Howard Marblestone Lafayette College ************************************************* Seth Jerchower Public Services Librarian Center for Judaic Studies University of Pennsylvania 420 Walnut Street Philadelphia, PA 19106 Tel: (215) 238-1290, ext. 203 Fax: (215) 238-1540 sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu http://www.library.upenn.edu/cjs/ *************************************************

Date: Fri, 07 Dec 2001 11:00 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: from Paul Glasser

From: Paul Glasser pglasser @ yivo.cjh.org A comment on the comment: Yiddish "haynt" is not cognate with standard German "Heute," but with dialectal German /haynt/ (< hî-naht). Moreover, both "meister" and "meinster" are attested in Middle High German (see Lexer, Mittelhochdeutsches Wörterbuch). Therefore, it doesn't make sense to speak of Yiddish nasalization in this context. I've always associated the "n" of "Yankev," etc., with the ayin. I'm interested to read that it may not be the case. Of course, examples like "yandes" (with hey), Polish-Yiddish "dange" (with alef), etc., demonstrate that there's more here than meets the eye. P.(H.)G. Dr. Paul (Hershl) Glasser Associate Dean, Max Weinreich Center Senior Research Associate, Yiddish Language 212-246-6080 X6139 (ph) 212-292-1892 (fax) mailto:pglasser @ yivo.cjh.org YIVO Institute for Jewish Research 15 West 16 Street New York, New York 10011 http://www.yivoinstitute.org

Date: Fri, 07 Dec 2001 11:08 
From: Paul Glasser <pglasser @ yivo.cjh.org> 
Subject: Fw: from Paul Glasser

Can I correct the notice I just sent so that the first sentence reads: "A comment on Gideon Goldenberg's comment." Thanks! P.(H.)G.

Date: Fri, 07 Dec 2001 12:49 
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu> 
Subject: The Leone Modena "Qinah shemor"/"Chi nasce mor"

This is the bilingual "frottola" by Ephraim Luzzatto (1729-1792, born in San Daniele del Friuli, was studied medicine in Padua, and eventually moved to London, as the appointed Physician to the Portuguese Community -- see article in EJ; also the author's "Eleh bene ha-ne`urim" [originally London, 1766], Vienna 1839 edition, edited by Meir Letteris); while line 7 cites Modena, I would hardly judge it a plagiarization: הלום מי זה רואה שנות אידי פנה אלי או מה שאול שבר קינה שמור אני מתי אבוי ימי און עמל :הה כי פסו Ah! L'uom misero è se notte e dí pene e lai - ohimè - suol cibar. Chi nasce muor animati; A voi giammai avvenga mal - ah - che passo. Modena's instead is in ottava rima (from Roth "Renaissance", p.307; some corrections by SJ) קינה שמור אוי מה כםס אוצר בו כל טוב אילים כוסי אור דין אל צלו משה מורי משה יקר דבר בו שם תושיה און יום כפור הוא זה לו כלה מיטה ימי שן צרי אשר בו צייון זה מות רע אין כאן ירפה לו ספינה בים קל צל עובר ימינו הלים יובא שבי ושי שמנו Chi nasce, muor. Oimè, che passo [a]cerbo! Colto vi è l'uom, cosí ordina 'l Cielo Mosè morí, Mosè: già car di verbo Santo sia ogn'uom, con puro zelo Ch'alla metà, già mai senza riserbo Si giunge, ma vedran in cangiar pelo Se fin abbiam, ch'al cielo ver ameno - Ah - l'uomo va, se viv' assai, se meno. Interestingly, LM uses the Hebrew צל עובר "cielo ver", in which the `ayin appears as silent, while the later Luzzatto specifically uses the letter for the velar /ng/ (און עמל = avvenga mal). SJ

Date: Fri, 07 Dec 2001 14:27 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: from Gideon Goldenberg

From: Gideon Goldenberg msgidgol @ mscc.huji.ac.il To Paul Glasser's comment: I should like to make clear that in my comment I quoted Tur-Sinai's note stating that nasalization in Ashkenazi pronunciation of Hebrew was not a plain parallel to [n] reflex of &ayin in the pronunciation of Dutch- Portugese and Italian Jews; I also quoted his examples. His statement I would regard as correct, not necessarily all his examples. Paul Glasser is certainly right in his "comment on the comment" concerning "heute" and in his additional reference to dialectal German. I have in fact suggested that those phenomena should be studied in the context of German dialectology. Is there at all anything in the German component, i.e. in the basic structure, of Yiddish that is not shared by non-Jewish dialects? Yours, Gideon Goldenberg

Date: Tue, 18 Dec 2001 22:33 
From: Yaakov Bentolila <bentoli @ bgumail.bgu.ac.il> 
Subject: DETSAX 'ADASH BEAXAB

I am interested in the (different) Ladino "translations" of the well known acronym from the HAGGADAH: DETSAX 'ADASH BEAXAB: Dam, TSfardea, Kinnim, 'Arov, Dever, SHehin, Barad, 'Arbeh, Bexorot. I would appreciate details about any existing "translation" and about its source. The most peculiar "translation" known to me runs something like this: "Mordio el escorpion al tio paterno", i.e., 'the scorpion bit the paternal uncle" (!!), but I couldn't identify the source. Thanks, Prof. Yaakov Bentolila Hebrew Language Department Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Tel.: 972-8-9941348 (H) 972-8-6461723 (O)

Date: Thu, 20 Dec 2001 11:58 
From: Yona Sabar <sabar @ humnet.ucla.edu> 
Subject: Re: DETSAX 'ADASH BEAXAB

Dear Yaakov, In Neo-Aramaic it is translated mboshille Tloxe go qoqa "He cooked lentils in the (little) pot" , which has a humorous effect, just like the Ladino you mention. Only &adash has a transparent connection (in Hebrew and Arabic) to Tloxe "lentils"; the other two "words" don't seem to have any connection. For more details see my article on Neo-Aramaic Haggadot in forthcoming Leshonenu. Yona -- Yona Sabar, Professor of Hebrew and Aramaic Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1511 (home) 310-474-6430 (office) 310-206-1389 Fax: to Prof. Sabar at (310) 206-6456.

Date: Thu, 20 Dec 2001 14:00 
From: <jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu> 
Subject: NYTimes.com Article: Stefan Heym, Marxist-Leninist Novelist, Dies at 88 on Lecture Tour in Israel

This article from NYTimes.com has been sent to you by jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu. The last paragraph of this obituary refers to "a peculiar hybrid jargon ... Jewish-German." jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu Stefan Heym, Marxist-Leninist Novelist, Dies at 88 on Lecture Tour in Israel December 18, 2001 By DAVID BINDER Stefan Heym, the widely published author of more than a dozen historical and political novels, died yesterday while on a lecture tour in Israel. He was 88 and lived in Berlin. A Jew uprooted in Germany in 1933 by the Nazis, Mr. Heym became an intellectual nomad and a lifelong Marxist-Leninist: two years in Czechoslovakia, 15 years in the United States; settling finally in East Germany. In World War II he served in the United States Army in France and Germany. Extraordinarily prolific, Stefan Heym - his pen name - was more a highly gifted storyteller than a transcendent writer. With few exceptions his tales, drawn from history and contemporary political life, pitted a single man against a powerful and implacable authority. Describing his literary aims in 1967 to an American visitor to East Germany, he said the country was "a blank spot in literature for me to fill in." In fact East Germany produced a number of greatly talented homegrown novelists and poets whose works filled in virtually all of that blank spot. Mr. Heym never became deeply rooted in the hybrid society of East Germany. "I always say I'm not only a German writer but also an American," he said. "Much of what I write, say and the way I act is American, although as a boy I wanted to be like Schiller." Klaus Korn, a retired university professor in Berlin, said of Mr. Heym: "We saw him as somebody from over there, from America. His novels were more in the American style, Sinclair Lewis or Norman Mailer, than German." As for his origins Mr. Heym said: "Being here in Germany helps me to continue feeling as a Jew. Sometimes I feel myself as a Jew. Sometimes I feel myself a German. And sometimes I even have American traces in my makeup. I am kind of a mix." Late in life, four years after the Berlin Wall collapsed, he ran as an independent Socialist for political office in the newly united Germany and won election as a Bundestag deputy from the Communist stronghold of Prenzlauer Berg, a borough of eastern Berlin. At the time he described himself as both "a writer of genius" and "a full-blooded politician." Mr. Heym quit office after a year in protest against the deputies' vote to increase their own salaries by 50 percent. He was born Helmut Flieg, the son of a textile manufacturer in the eastern industrial city of Chemnitz, on April 10, 1913. Early on he demonstrated a fierce ambition to be noticed, publishing an anti-militarist verse in The Chemnitzer Volkszeitung in 1931, which caused his expulsion from high school. He was attending the University of Berlin when Hitler came to power in 1933. Fleeing across the frontier near his birthplace to neighboring Czechoslovakia, he earned a hand-to-mouth living as a writer in Prague. He was already strongly attached to the teachings of Marx and Lenin, contributing articles over the next six years to Communist periodicals in Prague and Moscow. In 1935 he gained a scholarship from a Jewish fraternity at the University of Chicago and went to the United States on a ticket paid for by Czech writers and journalists. He received a master's degree and moved to New York to become editor of a German-language anti-Nazi weekly, Deutsches Volksecho. The paper supported the Hitler-Stalin pact of 1939. After the collapse of the Berlin Wall, Mr. Heym repeatedly claimed that he "never belonged to a party in my whole life." On a questionnaire he filled out for the East German Writers Association in 1952, however, he said he joined the Communist Party U.S.A. in 1936 and remained a member for three years. From 1939 to 1942 he was a printing salesman, working on a novel in his spare time: "Hostages" (G. P. Putnam's Sons), a thriller about the Nazi occupation of Prague, which was an instant success before he turned 30. Orville Prescott, The New York Times's book critic, called the story "tense, tautly constructed, swift and terrible." Paramount made it into a movie, starring Luise Rainer and William Bendix. He joined the United States Army and was assigned to a psychological warfare unit, the Second Mobile Broadcasting Company. Landing in France a week after D-Day in 1944, he saw duty close to the front as one of the "hog callers," speaking German over a loudspeaker to urge Wehrmacht troops to surrender. He became one of the founding editors in Munich of Neue Zeitung, the first American Occupation Zone newspaper. He then returned to New York and resumed writing fiction, publishing a modestly successful World War II novel, "The Crusaders," and "The Eyes of Reason" three years later. In 1951, fearing investigation by the House Un-American Activities Committee as the hunt for Communists led by Senator Joseph R. McCarthy reached a crescendo, Mr. Heym left the United States with his American wife, Gertrude Peltryn, a New Yorker whom he married in 1944. She died in 1969. They stayed first in Warsaw and Prague, arriving in East Germany a year later. He then presented his action as "a protest" against the role of the United States in the Korean War and took part in anti-American propaganda campaigns. He also renounced his American citizenship and returned his Army decorations to Washington. He soon became a star propagandist for the Communist regime and its Soviet protectors. When construction workers demonstrated in the streets against the system in 1953, he wrote in his weekly column in The Berliner Zeitung that the repression of the uprising by Soviet tank cannons was justified "to prevent a war" because otherwise "American bombing nights would have started." On Stalin's birthday that year Mr. Heym wrote of him as "the most beloved man of our time." Later he called Soviet political concentration camps "settlements." When Hungarians revolted against Communist rule in 1956, he called their crushing defeat by Soviet armored columns a "matter of ethics." For this and other expressions of loyalty he was awarded the National Prize II Class and two literary awards by the Stalinist regime in East Berlin. But by the mid-60's he was out of favor with the party leadership, accused of conducting "a conceited elitist mission" and writing "truth as conceived in the West." His relations with the ruling party worsened when he began to publish novels in the West that he could not get permission for in the East. But he lived in a comfortable house in the lakeside borough of Grnau and drove a white Lancia roadster. Because of his Western television appearances he was a celebrity in the East despite strictures on his publishing there and police surveillance. With his hard-currency earnings he also traveled to the West. His historical-political novels included "The Eyes of Reason" in 1951 about the 1948 Communist takeover in Czechoslovakia; "Goldsborough" in 1953 about a miners' strike in Pennsylvania; "The Papers of Andreas Lenz" in 1963 about the abortive 1848 revolution in Germany; "Lassalle" in 1969 about Ferdinand Lassalle, the 19th-century founder of the German Socialist movement; "The Queen Against Defoe" in 1970 about Daniel Defoe's libel and slander case; "The King David Report" in 1972, a story about the rewriting of history under a dictatorship cast as a biblical tale; and "Ahasver" in 1981, a mythological story about the eternal wandering Jew as an itinerant revolutionary. In his autobiographical "Nachruf" ("Obituary") in 1988 he often spoke of himself in the third person as "S. H.," especially when describing his behavior during the Stalin purges. But he was not candid about being an ardent Stalinist from 1933 to 1963. "I was never a dissident in relation to the Communist-Socialist world movement," Mr. Heym said in 1977. On Nov. 4, 1989, as the Communist regime in East Germany began to topple, Mr. Heym joined other prominent would-be reformers at Marx Engels Square in the center of East Berlin where he spoke to a crowd of 100,000, saying that "socialism, the right kind, not the Stalinist kind, is what we want to build for our benefit and the benefit of all Germany." Just as Mr. Heym had assailed the East Germans in 1953 for rising up against their Soviet overlords, he now spoke sarcastically of this people as "a horde pressed belly to back on the hunt for glittering junk" in West German department stores. One of his last works, "The Gals Are Always Gone and Other Clever Sayings," published in 1997, is a mostly autobiographical collection of tales about himself and his second wife, Inge. A sharp departure from the novels that form the main part of his output, it is written in a peculiar hybrid jargon that is the author's conception of what might be called Jewish-German, including a sprinkling of Yiddish phrases, and is designed as a tribute to his wife, Inge Hohn, a film scenarist who survives him. http://www.nytimes.com/2001/12/18/obituaries/18HEYM.html ?ex=1009874833&ei=1&en=f8af23639246c6fe Copyright 2001 The New York Times Company

Date: Thu, 20 Dec 2001 15:30 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: AJS notes

At the Association for Jewish Studies conference in Washington, DC, last week, there were 2 great panels on Jewish languages. At the panel on translating sacred text into Jewish languages, Frederick Greenspahn (University of Denver) was the respondent to papers by Benjamin Hary, George Jochnowitz, and Seth Jerchower. A lively discussion ensued about Jewish languages and their Hebrew-calque varieties. The sectional meeting had only 6 people, but we came up with some good ideas for future panels at AJS (or elsewhere). Here's a list of them: - How groups of Jews shift from one Jewish language to another (e.g., Yiddish to Jewish English; Judeo-French/Italian and/or Judeo-Slavic to Yiddish...) - The emergence of Modern Hebrew (incl. influence of Jewish and non-Jewish languages) - Jewish language death - Jewish languages and gender - Typology and theory of Jewish languages - Trends in literacy - Discourse issues in Jewish languages Lewis Glinert, the representative to AJS for Jewish languages, will choose a few of these to be the suggested topics for next year's conference. And maybe people on this list can organize panels on specific themes, whether from this list or not. We also talked about the website that Tsuguya Sasaki and I are working on. It's making progress, and we've recently decided to obtain our own domain name, hopefully "www.jewish-languages.org." In order to reserve this space on the web, we have to pay $60/year. Eventually we will be a non-profit organization and will be able to apply for funding, but right now we're just a bunch of individuals. So we're trying to collect the $60 from the members of this list by mid-January. If you'd like to donate $5 or $10 to this fund, please contact me by e-mail. Tsuguya and I will keep you updated on the website's progress. And you'll likely be hearing from Benjamin Hary within the next year or 2 about a conference on Jewish languages that he's starting to plan at Emory University. -Sarah Bunin Benor

Date: Thu, 27 Dec 2001 12:00 
From: Yona Sabar <sabar @ humnet.ucla.edu> 
Subject: Re: call for panelists for AJS 2002

Dear Lewis, I hear that next AJS conference will be in Los Angeles. I'll be happy to help in any way and read a paper, probably on language death (lo alekhem - Sephardic; lo aleynu -Ashkenazic)/and organize a panel on that. Those who are interested, let me know. shana Tova ve-khol Tuv la-kol, Yona > Shelomot: > > We are inviting papers and panels for next year's AJS conference, > Section: "Jewish language, linguistics and semiotics" > > The following are the suggested themes. Feel free to organize your own. > > - Jewish discourse > - The emergence of Modern Hebrew > - Trends in Jewish literacy > - Typology and theory of Jewish languages > - Jewish language and gender > - Language shift between Jewish languages > - Jewish language death (lo alenu) > > kol tuv > > Lewis Glinert > Section Organizer > > Lewis Glinert > 6191 Bartlett Hall > Dartmouth College > Hanover, NH 03755 -- Yona Sabar, Professor of Hebrew and Aramaic Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1511 (home) 310-474-6430 (office) 310-206-1389 Fax: to Prof. Sabar at (310) 206-6456.

January 2002

Date: Sun, 13 Jan 2002 19:30 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Armenian community

This message appeared on H-Judaic. -Sarah ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Sat, 12 Jan 2002 00:15:52 -0500 From: Automatic digest processor <LISTSERV @ H-NET.MSU.EDU> Reply-To: H-NET Jewish Studies List <H-JUDAIC @ H-NET.MSU.EDU> To: Recipients of H-JUDAIC digests <H-JUDAIC @ H-NET.MSU.EDU> Subject: H-JUDAIC Digest - 10 Jan 2002 to 11 Jan 2002 (#2002-11) There is one message totalling 47 lines in this issue. Topics of the day: 1. HEBREW UNIVERSITY EXPEDITION UNCOVERS UNKNOWN JEWISH COMMUNITY (Stone) ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Fri, 11 Jan 2002 08:01:28 -0500 From: Anna Urowitz-Freudenstein <hjmod @ oise.utoronto.ca> Subject: HEBREW UNIVERSITY EXPEDITION UNCOVERS UNKNOWN JEWISH COMMUNITY (Stone) From: Michael E. Stone <stone @ vms.huji.ac.il> Subject: HEBREW UNIVERSITY EXPEDITION UNCOVERS UNKNOWN JEWISH COMMUNITY An expedition led by Hebrew University Professor of Armenian Studies, Michael E. Stone, and composed of Israeli and Armenian Archeologists and experts, has made further major finds in Eghegis, Armenia, including many inscriptions in beautiful Hebrew script and language. This previously unknown community is now becoming uncovered. The expedition returned from field-work in Armenia this week. Reports will be published in full in the media and in scholarly journals soon. Many pictures and daily reports may be found on the Hebrew University Armenian Web Site: http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~armenia. Reports, pictures and video-clips may be found on: http://churcharmenia.com The graveyard being excavated is unprecedentedly early, dating from the mid-thirteenth to early fourteenth century. The work is sponsored by the Charles and Agnes Kazarian Eternal Fund with the support of the Ben Tzvi Institute for Study of the Oriental Jewish Communities, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, the Foundation for Biblical Archeology and the Israel Antiquities Authority. Further information from stone @ vms.huji.ac.il -- Michael E. Stone Professor of Armenian Studies Hebrew University of Jerusalem Fax: +972-2-642-6631 michael.stone @ huji.ac.il http://unixware.mscc.huji.ac.il/~armenia ------------------------------ End of H-JUDAIC Digest - 10 Jan 2002 to 11 Jan 2002 (#2002-11) **************************************************************

Date: Mon, 14 Jan 2002 15:07 +0100 
From: Marc Kiwitt <mkiwitt @ ix.urz.uni-heidelberg.de> 
Subject: Introduction to the list and new book on Judeo-French

Dear list members, I am new to the list, so I would like to introduce myself: My name is Marc Kiwitt, I have studied Romance and Semitic languages and linguistics at the University of Heidelberg, and I am currently a first year Ph.D. student at the Université Paris-Sorbonne. My thesis is supervised by the professors Frankwalt Möhren (Heidelberg) and Claude Thomasset (Paris). My main research interest is Judeo-French: I have partially edited a Judeo-French medical treatise for my M.A., and I am currently working on a Hebrew/French biblical glossary from the 13th century. Most of my work is done within the framework of "traditional" historical and descriptive linguistics, with an emphasis on historical lexicography. Let me also announce the publication of my book, which might be of interest to some of you: Marc Kiwitt, Der altfranzösische Fiebertraktat Fevres. Teiledition und sprachwissenschaftliche Untersuchung, Würzburger medizinhistorische Forschungen 75, Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann 2001, 216 pages. ISBN 3-8260-2299-8. It is a revised version of my M.A. paper and consists of a partial edition and linguistic study of the Judeo-French medical treatise transmitted in ms. Staatsbibliothek Berlin, Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Or. Oct. 512. The main focus of the study is a lexicographical analysis of the French vocabulary of the text within the framework of Old French historical lexicography and etymology. It follows the methodological approach of the Dictionnaire Etymologique de l'Ancien Français (DEAF). Special attention is also devoted to the question in how far the study of this text sheds new light on the linguistic status of Judeo-French as a whole and its possible differences from Christian Old French. The book also includes a codicological and paleographical description of the manuscript, a study of its graphemical system within the context of the Judeo-French literary tradition, an overview of phonetic and grammatical features of its language, an attempt at dating and localizing the text, a study of the sources of the edited parts of the treatise, as well as extensive glossaries of the Old French, Hebrew and Latin words contained in it. Kind regards Marc Kiwitt 13 rue Frédéric Sauton 75005 Paris, France phone: (+33)1 46 33 75 10 e-mail: Marc.Kiwitt@gmx.net

Date: Fri, 25 Jan 2002 10:33 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Loez language (fwd)

Here's a query about Loez. Can people please respond to the list, in addition to RuHindin @ aol.com? Thanks, Sarah ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Thu, 24 Jan 2002 20:51:41 EST From: RuHindin @ aol.com Subject: Loez language What language[s] were involved in Loez? Approximately when did it start being used? How long did its use last? RuHindin @ aol.com

Date: Fri, 25 Jan 2002 23:45 +0300 
From: Gideon Goldenberg <msgidgol @ mscc.huji.ac.il> 
Subject: Re: Loez language (fwd)

The questions what language[s] were involved in Loez, approximately when did it start being used, and how long did its use last, is not clear to me. Is it about the meaning of "lo'ez" in the Bible, or in the Mishna ("one who does not understand Hebrew")? or elsewhere? "Lashon lo'azit" for any language other than Hebrew, or "La'az" for any language other than Hebrew or for non-Hebrew words or expressions, are common to the present day as ever in the same sense as in the Mishna. Gideon Goldenberg > Here's a query about Loez. Can people please respond to the list, in > addition to RuHindin @ aol.com? > > Thanks, > Sarah > > ---------- Forwarded message ---------- > Date: Thu, 24 Jan 2002 20:51:41 EST > From: RuHindin @ aol.com > To: sbenor @ Stanford.EDU > Subject: Loez language > > What language[s] were involved in Loez? Approximately when did it start > being used? How long did its use last? > RuHindin @ aol.com ========================== Prof. Gideon Goldenberg 48 Ben-Maimon Avenue IL-92261 Jerusalem, Israel. Telephone (972-2-)5665135 Fax (972-2-)5634891 msgidgol@mscc.huji.ac.il ==========================

Date: Fri, 25 Jan 2002 13:57 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Loez

Here's the response I sent RuHindin @ aol.com. I think he/she was talking about Western and Southern Loez, which Weinreich considers the pre-JLs of Yiddish. -Sarah The word Loez comes from the Hebrew, meaning "speak a foreign language" and has been used throughout Jewish history to refer to the local non-Hebrew language. You might have read/heard it in relation to the history of Yiddish. Max Weinreich's History of the Yiddish Language considers Western Loez (French) and Southern Loez (Italian) to be the languages spoken by Jews before they immigrated to Germanic lands. The Jewish varieties of these languages were spoken in the Middle Ages, but I am not sure when they started or how long they lasted. According to Marc Kiwitt's description of Judeo-French, which will soon be posted on our website www.jewish-languages.org, "The history of the Judeo-French literary tradition begins in the 11th century with the glosses of Rashi and Moshe ha-Darshan. It ends in the 14th century, after persecutions and repeated expulsions had virtually ended the Jewish presence in France."

February 2002

Date: Tue, 5 Feb 2002 16:14:05 +0900 
From: Tsuguya Sasaki <ts @ ts-cyberia.net> 
Subject: Jewish Language Research Website

I am pleased to inform you that the revised version of the Jewish Language Research Website is ready for your browsing at the following new URI, though there are some parts which are still under construction: http://www.jewish-languages.org/ I did my best to convert the entries you had submitted to Sarah Benor, which were later forwarded to me, into webpages while keeping the consistent format explained briefly on the following page, hence rearranging, adding or subtracting part of your bibliographical items: http://www.jewish-languages.org/submission.html I apologize to you in advance for any possible typo or mistake that might have crept into the webpages due to my understanding or mere ignorance. Those parts of the bibliographical information that were missing in the original submissions, such as the original titles of the Hebrew publications, places of publication, publishers, etc. - are marked with a question mark. Should you find any typo or mistake, please e-mail Sarah Benor at sbenor @ stanford.edu / editor @ jewish-languages.org or your humble cyber-servant at ts @ ts-cyberia.net / webmaster @ jewish-languages.org. We will do our best to correct it at our earliest convenience. As you may notice on the website, e-mail addresses have no hyperlinks. This was done on purpose in order to protect your privacy though it may cause some inconvenience as you have to cut/copy and past someone's e-mail address to contact him or her from the site. As a further precautionary measure I also coded all the non-hyperlinked e-mail address on the website using the so-called character entity for @, which is &#64;. I am sure that you receive a number of unsolicited commercial e-mail (commonly known as spam e-mail) messages. The above two measures were taken to prevent spambots that "harvest" e-mail addresses from detecting ours and sending us spam messages. They simply identify every character string that contains a mail hyperlink and/or @ as an e-mail address. It is true that with these measures the convenience of just clicking to e-mail someone is sacrificed, as was said above, but the number of potential spam messages we may receive through our website will be greatly reduced. Our website is probably among the few in which various scripts encoded in Unicode (UTF-8), including the Hebrew script, are mixed. As for web building, more emphasis was put on the proper structural markup of the web documents rather than abusing HTML/XHTML for physical layout. The whole site was validated according to the DTD it uses, so it is "glat kosher" in terms of HTML/XHTML. In the ideal world, this is supposed to mean that all the standards-compliant browsers can render our website properly, but in reality some old browsers fail to support the bidirectional algorithm to display text strings in Hebrew (and Arabic) scripts properly. Netscape Navigator 4.x is probably the most notorious among these browsers that are not compliant with the web standards. Since its share in the browser market is dwindling to the benefit of the online community, I have decided not to accomodate our site to this buggy browser-shmowser, and thus make it "treyf". You must be really patient if you have read this message until the end. ;-) Thank you very much for your attention. Tsuguya Sasaki http://www.ts-cyberia.net/

Date: Thu, 7 Feb 2002 08:48 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Announcement: New Issue of *Pe'Amim: Studies in Oriental Jewry*

This is from the Sephardi/Mizrahi Studies Caucus list. Note especially the last article - about language. -Sarah ------------------------------------------------ Announcement: New Issue of *Pe'Amim: Studies in Oriental Jewry* (Glatzer) From: Michael Glatzer <mahonzvi @ h2.hum.huji.ac.il> Date: Wednesday, February 6, 2002 11:57 PM *Peamim - Studies in Oriental Jewry*, No. 89 (Autumn 2001), 176 pp. Ben-Zvi Institute, POB 7660 Jerusalem 91076 Email: mahonzvi@h2.hum.huji.ac.il Editor: Dr. Avriel Bar-Levav Most of the articles in this issue of Pe'amim are devoted to the history and culture of the Karaite Jews. "Karaites and the Orient - Trends in the Study of Karaites and Karaism" Haggai Ben-Shammai discusses Karaites and Karasim in the context of the research on Oriental Jewry, reviewing trends in the study of Karaism in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. He describes the development of major collections of Karaite manuscripts in European collections in the nineteenth century, the impact of the Cairo Geniza on the study of Karaism, publication of texts by leading Karaite figures and the first monographs on the subject and the possibilities and prospects of this research in the future. Professor Ben-Shammai, chairman of the Ben-Zvi Institute, teaches in the Department of Arabic Language and Literature at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. "Karaites in Lithuania and in Volhynia-Galicia until the Eighteenth Century" Golda Ahiezer and Dan Shapira survey the appearance of Karaite communities in Eastern Europe and their development. The article reveals new sources, presents the conflicting legends regarding their arrival in Lithuania and Galicia and raises various possibilities regarding the origin of the Karaites in these regions. The article also reviews the most important Karaite communities in Volhynia and Galicia and the literary output of Karaite scholars in the area. Ms. Ahiezer is a research student in the Department of Jewish History at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and is engaged in research at the Ben-Zvi Institute. Dr. Shapira teaches in the Department of History, Philosophy and Jewish Studies at the Open University. "Yefet ben Eli's Translation of the Book of Obadiah" Meira Polliack and Eliezer Schlossberg present a critical, annotated edition of the Judeo-Arabic translation of the Book of Obadiah by the Karaite Yefet ben Eli, who lived in Jerusalem in the second half of the tenth century. In the opinion of the writers Yefet played a key role in the development of Karaite Biblical exegesis, which had an influence on Rabbinite commentaries written in all Muslim lands, and particularly in Spain. In their commentary they provide Yefet's translation with textual variants and a Hebrew translation of his interpretation. Dr. Polliack teaches in the Bible Department of Tel Aviv University. Dr. Schlossberg is chairman of the Department of Arabic at Bar-Ilan University. "Order and Meaning in Root Letters: On the Character of the Seventh Part of Kitab al-Mustamil by Abu-al-Faraj Hârûn" Aharon Maman discusses the seventh part of Kitab al-Mustamil ("The Comprehensive Book") by the Karaite grammarian Abu al-Faraj Hârûn ben al-Faraj, one of the leading figures in the Karaite community of Jerusalem in the eleventh century. In this section of the book the Karaite grammarian presents a list of anagrammatic Hebrew roots. According to the writer the list was meant to illustrate the importance and significance of the order of root letters: The root changes its meaning when the order of the letters is altered. Professor Maman teaches in the Department of Hebrew Language and heads the Center for the Study of Jewish Languages and Literatures at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. "The Karaite as the "Other" Jew" Daniel J. Lasker discusses the image of the Karaites, and the various uses of the term "Karaite" in polemic literature. He points out that the groups "accused" of Karaism included Marranos, Sabbateans, Reform, Conservative, Ultra-Orthodox and others. In his conclusion he suggests an explanation for this phenomenon. Professor Lasker is the Norbert Blechner Professor of Jewish Values and teaches in the Department of Jewish Thought at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev "The Central Committee of the Zionist Organization of Teheran - the First National Institution of the Jews of Iran (1917-1931)" Meir Sasson discusses the Central Committee of the Zionist Organization of Teheran and its activities from 1917 to 1931. As the first nation-wide institution of the Jews of Iran, it dealt with such matters as defense, aliya, education and contacts with the World Zionist Organization. The importance of the committee goes beyond the history of Zionism alone, shedding light on communal organization. Mr. Sasson is a research student in the Institute of Contemporary Jewry at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. "Language and Languages - the Hebrew Lexicon of Jewish Communities" The Late Professor Shlomo Morag wrote an article on the rationale behind the work of the Center for Jewish Languages and Literatures at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, which he founded. It is published here posthumously with the help of his student, Professor Aharon Maman. The article deals with the influence of Hebrew on the lexicon of Jewish languages, mainly in the East, illustrating the literary and cultural basis of Hebrew words that appear in Jewish languages in a new context, occasionally unexpected. Professor Morag, who was awarded the Israel Prize for the study of the Hebrew language, taught in the Department of Hebrew Language at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and was chairman of the Ben-Zvi Institute. RESPONSES Professor Haggai Ben-Shammai responds to an article in *Pe'amim* 88 by Meir Havazelet and Uri Melammed. BOOK REVIEWS Boaz Shoshan reviews *In the Kingdom of Ishmael in the Geonic Period* by Moshe Gil

Date: Fri, 8 Feb 2002 06:36 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Colloquium on the Sociology of Language and Religion

This call for papers was posted to Linguist List. It seems like there are several topics that could be of interest to Jewish language scholars. http://www.roehampton.ac.uk/artshum/engmod/colloquium/ ------------------------------------ 13.342, Calls: Sociology of Language 1) From: Tope Omoniyi (PhD) <t.omoniyi @ roehampton.ac.uk> Subject: Call for Additional Papers:The Sociology of Language and Religion Colloquium http://linguistlist.org/issues/13/13-342.html

Date: Mon, 11 Feb 2002 18:11 -0800 
From: James Ward <jamesward @ earthlink.net> 
Subject: Introduction and query

Hello! My name is James Ward. I am an amateur scholar (a positive categorization!) in the field of Jewish languages, which I have been studying for the past two and a half years or so. My academic background is in languages and literatures, and also history and religious studies. I majored in Russian and German at the University of Tulsa, and concentrated on Tibetan language and area studies at Indiana University for one year at the graduate level. Now I test dirt for a geotechnical laboratory! Nonetheless, I have an unaffiliated "journeyman's" slightly defensive notion that such people can contribute to their chosen subjects in a worthwhile manner. Naturally I urge you to share in this view! What a pleasant surprise it was to discover the existence of this list and your new website! As similar internet searches a year or so ago came up with nothing so encouraging, I was not expecting such progress to have been made in the electronic dissemination of information and possibilities for communication within mere months. Congratulations and gratitude for having made this growth possible! I must still classify myself as a beginner in the study of Jewish languages. Certainly my study of German has rendered learning Yiddish easier perhaps than it would be for someone with no experience with this language family, but I have found that there is much to be unlearned as well. At first, however, Ladino captured my imagination in a very exciting way. As far as I can reconstruct it with my sieve of a memory, I must have stumbled upon Ladino materials while searching for Syriac books at the UCLA library. I wish I could convey to you the thrill of taking the Me'am Loez off the shelf and being able to read "En el prinsipiyo...!" And then to see bound newspapers from Istanbul of all places in Spanish and written in the Hebrew letters! But surely you have experienced this thrill yourselves in one way or another. My Central Asian studies also led me to an interest in Judeo-Persian, particularly of the modern variety, although as yet I have only really tried to read a brief passage in a polyglot phrasebook made for immigrants to Palestine around the turn of the century. Now for my question: The usage of the Hebrew alphabet to read and write in local vernaculars would seem to be practically unparalleled. The only other instance of such practices that I can cite, second-hand, is from a book called Ottoman Turkish Conversation Grammar (Method Gaspey Otto Sauer), in which the author states that Greeks and Armenians used their own alphabets to write Turkish. Does anyone know of any other instances in which communities used their own alphabets to write the languages of a dominant social group? And if not, does the widespread nature of this practice among Jewish communities perhaps indicate that the Greek and Armenian communities borrowed this practice from the Jewish? Or can the antiquity of all of these peoples (and their literary cultures) with respect to their contemporary rulers account for this practice in a completely independent manner in each instance? Once again, my thanks for all of your efforts in creating this network. Well done indeed! Sincerely, James Ward jamesward @ earthlink.net

Date: Wed, 13 Feb 2002 09:35 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: using different alphabets

Hello, James, and welcome to the list. Your question about alphabets is a good one for discussion. Jews are certainly not the only group that has used its own alphabet for a language that is usually written in another alphabet. Norman Stillman has presented a paper comparing Jewish languages with Muslim languages, and he pointed out that Muslim languages are often written in the Arabic alphabet. We see this in coutries where Muslims are the majority, like Iran and pre-Attaturk Turkey, but we also see it in places where Muslims are a minority, like China. Mozarabic, a romance language in the middle ages, was written in Arabic characters and influenced by Arabic. In addition, I remember reading something similar about Yupik, a language spoken in Alaska. Various groups of speakers have written this language in Cyrillic and Latin alphabets, depending which church they belong to (influenced by missionaries). Similarly, Hindi (India) and Urdu (Pakistan) are mutually intelligible, and they are differentiated partly by their scripts, which are based on religion. I imagine that there are instances of this all around the world. Does anyone know about others? Please correct me if any of the above information is wrong. Thanks, Sarah Bunin Benor Stanford University

Date: Thu, 14 Feb 2002 01:51 +0100 
From: Marc Kiwitt <mkiwitt @ ix.urz.uni-heidelberg.de> 
Subject: using different alphabets: aljamiado

Hello James! > Does anyone know of any other instances in which communities used > their own alphabets to write the languages of a dominant social group? I agree with Sarah that the use of the Arabic script to write a local language is very common in Islamic communities. I think this phenomenon is comparable to Jewish languages in so far as in both cases a local language is written in Arabic/Hebrew script because of the religious and cultural prestige of that script within the group that uses it. But as far as I know, in most of these cases (Turkish before Atatürk, Persian, Urdu, Pashto, Malay written in Jawi script, Tatar and Circassian until the 1920s, Dungan (a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in Kyrgystan) until 1952, to a lesser extent Hausa and Swahili etc.), the group using the Arabic script is either the dominant social group or adopts not the language but the script of a dominant group (or neither one nor the other). In the case of Yupik, I think the Yupiks have adopted not the language but the scripts of two different dominant groups. But I believe you specifically wanted to know about minorities who have adopted the language of a dominant group but kept their own script. One example I can think of is the case of aljamiado (the language of the moriscos). After the end of the reconquista of the Iberian peninsula in 1492, the Arabic population was forced to either convert to Christianity or to leave the country. The newly baptized Arabs were called cristianos nuevos or moriscos. Although they were officially Christians, they were only superficially christianised and continued to practise Islam in secret. They also didn't merge with the Christian Spanish population, but always remained a distinct, unassimilated group until their expulsion in 1609-1614 (at that time, an estimated 270.000 moriscos were expelled). The moriscos adopted the Spanish language of the dominant group (or Portuguese, respectively) but continued to use the Arabic script. Most surviving texts are from Castilia and from Aragón and were written in the second half of the 16th century. Their content is usually of a religious nature, e.g. they contain prayers, Koran fragments and summaries, calendar calculation, liturgy, but also magical formulas, medical recipes and legends. Most of the texts are vocalized, and there are some graphemic features specific to aljamiado, e.g. Spanish consonant sounds for which no sign exists in the Arabic script are often rendered by tashdid (consonant doubling). In the Spanish aljamiado texts, the language is usually Castilian (not Aragonese or Catalan, for example), which can be explained with the fact that most moriscos originated from Andalucia, a region that has been completely hispanicized after the reconquista, and only later were forced to move to Aragón and Catalonia, where they didn't adopt the regional languages. There are apparently no Arabic influences in the phonology and morphology of the aljamiado texts, whereas in their syntax they often reproduce Arabic structures (e.g relative clause, nominal clause, verbal congruence etc.), and there are also many Arabic loanwords, mostly from the religious sphere (e.g. alqibla "direction of prayer", halâl "allowed according to religious prescriptions"), but also for non-religious concepts used in the context of a religious text (e.g. albahar "the sea"). The Arabic loanwords are morphologically integrated into the Romance text - for example, the adverb of halâl is halâlmente. If you want to read more about aljamiado, try to find books and articles by Alvaro Galmés de Fuentes, Ottmar Hegyi, Reinhold Kontzi, Christina Köster, Ana Labarta and Consuelo López-Morillas. Out of memory and from what I have available at my desk, here are a few unsorted bibliographical indications: Galmés de Fuentes, Álvaro et al., Glosario de voces aljamiado-moriscas, Oviedo: Biblioteca Árabo-Románica 1994. Galmes de Fuentes, Álvaro (ed.), Actas del coloquio internacional sobre literatura aljamiada y morisca, Madrid: Gredos 1978. Hegyi, Ottmar, Cinco leyendas y otros relatos moriscos, Madrid: Gredos 1981. Hegyi, Ottmar, Sprache im Grenzgebiet zwischen Islam und Christentum: Die Aljamiadoliteratur, in: Lüdtke, Jens (ed.), Romania Arabica. Festschrift für Reinhold Kontzi zum 70. Geburtstag, Tübingen: Narr 1996. Kontzi, Reinhold, Das Zusammentreffen der arabischen Welt mit der romanischen und seine sprachlichen Folgen, in: Kontzi, Reinhold (ed.), Substrate und Superstrate in den romanischen Sprachen, Darmstadt 1982. Federico Corriente, Arabe andalusí y lenguas romances, Madrid: MAPFRE 1992. Article "aljamía" in: Kramers, J. H. et al. (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Islam, Leiden: Brill (2)1954. I am not completely sure, but I suppose that volume 7 of Günter Holtus, et al. (eds.), Lexikon der Romanistischen Linguistik (LRL). Tübingen: Max Niemeyer 1998 will also contain an article on aljamiado - this one might be the best starting point. I hope this helps! Best regards Marc

Date: Thu, 14 Feb 2002 01:56 +0100 
From: Marc Kiwitt <mkiwitt @ ix.urz.uni-heidelberg.de> 
Subject: using different alphabets: aljamiado (2)

P.S. I have found the reference to the article in the Lexikon der Romanistischen Linguistik, which I mentioned at the end of my last e-mail, and I can recommend it as a general introduction: Reinhold Kontzi, Arabisch und Romanisch, in: Holtus, Günter et al. (eds.), Lexikon der Romanistischen Linguistik, volume 7, Tübingen: Max Niemeyer 1998, 328-347. Regards Marc

Date: Wed, 13 Feb 2002 22:12 -0800 
From: James Ward <jamesward @ earthlink.net> 
Subject: scripts

Thank you, Sarah and Marc, for your responses to my question, and thanks again to those who have written to me individually. I completely forgot about the writing of Spanish in Arabic script when I asked my question! It is very good to have such a wealth of bibliographical information about this. I am pleased to know that many more of these sources have survived than I realized-- so far I have only seen a transcribed compilation of legends on Biblical subjects. This idea occurred to me last night: Is it possible that the limitations of literacy in the medieval world acted as a "receptive space" for the use of the Hebrew alphabet among the Jewish communities? Since the practice of reading and writing then was less widespread and somewhat restricted to elites, and since the Jewish communities might very well have been in the forefront of literacy on a community-wide level, maybe there was no real "negative pressure" on the use of this script coming from generalized (what we might call "national" these days) usage on the part of the Christian or Muslim literate circles. If possible, then this could be connected with the following idea. Maybe Ladino and Yiddish achieved their longevity partly from this cause: they moved from mutually-intelligible speech situations in Spain and Germany into the foreign speech situations of Russia (and Lithuania and Poland) and the Ottoman Empire, where they became part of a recognized "multi-national minority" structure. Meanwhile, in France and Italy and elsewhere, the spread of literacy with the advent of printing put assimilative (is that a word?) pressure on communities which had been using the Hebrew alphabet to conform to more standardized national practices. Please let me know what you think about this. I find it rather an exciting group of thoughts. Thanks again! James jamesward @ earthlink.net

Date: Thu, 14 Feb 2002 07:21 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: scripts and literacy

James: I agree that literacy is an important factor in the use of various scripts. In fact, contemporary Jewish languages, such as the Jewish English of Orthodox Jews in America, tend not to use Hebrew orthography. In my fieldwork in the US, where literacy rates in general are extremely high, I've only seen this language written in English script. However, Hebrew/Aramaic loan words are often inserted in Hebrew characters. I've seen this many times in handwriting by both men and women, as well as in printed materials, although loan words are also often written in English letters. I've never seen English-origin words written in Hebrew letters within Jewish English, although this is common in place names on the Hebrew side of wedding invitations and in the English-origin loanwords within American Yiddish. I'm curious if other contemporary Jewish languages are written in Hebrew letters. What about the contemporary Jewish varieties of French and Spanish? I'd be surprised if they did use Hebrew orthography, given the high literacy rates in the countries where they are spoken. Of course, Yiddish is still written in Hebrew letters in the US and elsewhere. -Sarah

Date: Thu, 14 Feb 2002 11:34 -0500 
From: George Jochnowitz <jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu> 
Subject: random thoughts

Here are some unconnected thoughts provoked by the fascinating discussions on alphabets and the survival of Jewish languages initiated by James Ward. If some of you have heard some of this before, I apologize for being repetitious. In the late days of the Ottoman Empire, many Jews had switched from Ladino to French. The use of Turkish among Jews living in Turkey today postdates the Ottoman Empire. After many centuries of being written in the Hebrew alphabet, Ladino is now written in Latin characters in Israel. In parts of Europe where the local language and the official language were the same (Germany, Hungary, Italy, Holland etc.), Jewish languages tended to disappear. In the Russian Empire, where the official language was Russian and the local languages were Ukrainian, Belarusan, Lithuanian, etc., Yiddish survived, as it did in those parts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire where the local language was neither German nor Hungarian. During the 20 years between World Wars I and II, about a third of the Jews in Poland, my father among them, switched to Polish because Polish was now the language of both the neighbors and the government. The Hui people of China (Chinese-speaking Muslims) have lost the ability to write Chinese using Arabic characters, but I saw Arabic writing over the doors of Hui residences when I lived in Baoding. One of the ways in which Marxism resembles religion is that the writing system changes after the doctrine of the country changes. In the Soviet Union, Yiddish was written without the final form of letters and words of Hebrew origin were spelled out phonetically. In China, many of the traditional characters (fantizi) were replaced by simplified characters (jiantizi). In Russian and Romanian, letters were removed from the alphabet, although a + circumflex was restored in the word "Roma^nia." In Mongolia, Cyrillic replaced the alphabet. In Inner Mongolia, which is a province of China, Mongolian writing remains and must be used on all signs. The Mongolian language, however, is giving way to Chinese. The Hebrew alphabet was not restored after the Babylonian captivity. What we now call the Hebrew alphabet is descended from an Aramaic writing system. I once saw an account of the destruction of the Jews of Zloczow in East Galicia written in Yiddish in the Latin alphabet spelled out according to the Polish orthographic system. One of my aunts wrote to my father (both were living in America) in Yiddish using the Polish orthographic system. "Oy vey" was spelled "oj waj," relected Central Yiddish pronuciation. A friend and neighbor of mine has letters from Poland written Yiddish using the German orthographic system. Nowadays, much Yiddish correspondence is taking place over the internet, using the YIVO system. Catacomb inscriptions dating from the Roman Empire are often in the Greek or Latin alphabets. George Jochnowitz

Date: Fri, 15 Feb 2002 10:39 -0500 
From: moshe cohen <mcohen1+ @ pitt.edu> 
Subject: judaeo- arabic

Hello Marc I was very impressed by the details concerning the expulsion of Muslims from Andalucia and Portugal. I am looking for many time on materials about that expulsion especially in arab or Muslim books.I have some suggestions why i did not find till know but i am not shure.Anyway i will appreciate if you could help me to find some materials about Judaeo- Arabic around the time of the Jews expulsion 1492=3,that because i published lately a book about Rabbi Saadia Ben Maimon Ibn Danan from Granada(Bodleiana mauscript).I teach here in Pittsburgh in Sabbatical year. thank you moshe cohen

Date: Fri, 15 Feb 2002 22:49 +0100 
From: Marc Kiwitt <mkiwitt @ ix.urz.uni-heidelberg.de> 
Subject: Re: judaeo- arabic

Hello Moshe, > Anyway i will appreciate if you could help me to find some materials > about Judaeo- Arabic around the time of the Jews expulsion 1492=3 I am not sure if I am the right person to help you, as I don't know much about Judeo-Arabic (my areas are Judeo-French and Romance languages in general). I don't know any specific studies about Judeo-Arabic in 15th century Spain, only a few general works about Spanish Arabic and Judeo-Arabic, but I suspect you will already know most (or perhaps all) of them. Anyway, here are the titles: 1. Spanish Arabic (including Judeo-Arabic on the Iberian peninsula): - Federico Corriente, A Grammatical Sketch of the Spanish Arabic Dialect Bundle, Madrid: Instituto Hispano-Arabe de Cultura 1977. - Federico Corriente, Arabe andalusí y lenguas romances, Madrid: MAPFRE 1992. - Federico Corriente, A Dictionary of Andalusi Arabic, Leiden: Brill 1997. - Reinhard Kiesler, Kleines vergleichendes Wörterbuch der Arabismen im Iberoromanischen und Italienischen, Tübingen: Francke 1994 [this is a dictionary of Arabic loan-words in Romance languages, but it includes a very useful introductory chapter about the linguistic situation in Spain and Sicily under the Muslim rule]. - Josep M. Solà-Solé, Sobre árabes, judíos y marranos y su impacto en la lengua y literatura españolas, Barcelona: Puvill 1983. - Arnald Steiger, Contribución a la fonética del hispano-árabe y de los arabismos en el ibero-románico y el siciliano, Madrid: Hernando 1932. 2. Medieval Judeo-Arabic in general: - Joshua Blau, Die arabischen Dialekte der Juden des Mittelalters im Spiegel der jüdisch-arabischen Texte, in: Orbis 7/1958, 159-167. - Joshua Blau, Medieval Judeo-Arabic, in: Herbert Paper (ed.), Jewish Languages. Theme and Variations. Proceedings of Regional Conferences of the Association for Jewish Studies Held at the University of Michigan and New York University in March-April, Cambridge (Mass.): Association for Jewish Studies 1978, 121-131. - Joshua Blau, Das frühe Neuarabisch in mittelarabischen Texten, in: Wolfdietrich Fischer (ed.), Grundriß der Arabischen Philologie. Band I: Sprachwissenschaft, Wiesbaden: Reichert 1988, 96-109. - Joshua Blau, Studies in Middle Arabic and its Judaeo-Arabic Variety, Jerusalem: Magnes Press 1988. - Joshua Blau, Diqduq ha-Aravit ha-Yehudit shel Yeme ha-Benayim, 2nd edition, Jerusalem: Magnes Press 1990. - Joshua Blau, The Emergence and Linguistic Background of Judaeo-Arabic. A Study of the Origins of Middle Arabic, 3rd edition, Jerusalem: Ben Zvi Institute 1999. - Israel Friedländer, Der Sprachgebrauch des Maimonides. Ein lexikalischer und grammatischer Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Mittelarabischen, Frankfurt: J. Kauffmann 1902. - Israel Friedländer, Die arabische Sprache des Maimonides, in: W. Bacher et al. (eds.), Moses ben Maimon. Sein Leben, seine Werke und sein Einfluss, volume 1, Leipzig : G. Fock 1908, 421-428. - Moritz Steinschneider, Die arabische Literatur der Juden. Ein Beitrag zur Literaturgeschichte, großentheils aus handschriftlichen Quellen, Frankfurt am Main: Kauffmann 1902 (reprint Hildesheim: Olms 1986). That's all I can think of. Maybe you can find something about your topic in the bibliographies of these works. I am sure other list members will be able to give you more specific bibliographical indications than I. Best regards Marc Kiwitt

Date: Mon, 18 Feb 2002 09:25 -0500 
From: Elaine Rebecca Miller <forerm @ panther.gsu.edu> 
Subject: Call for Papers: MLA 2002

CALL FOR PAPERS MLA 2002 Dec. 27-30, 2002 New York City Sephardic Studies Discussion Group Title: Judeo-Iberian Languages, Linguistics, and/or Literatures of the Diasporas How the Sephardic Diasporas shaped Iberian languages (oral/written) of the time of the expulsions, including Aragon, Castile, Catalonia, Portugal. One-page abstract, brief bibliography, vita by 16 March. Presenters must be MLA members by April 1, 2002 Send inquiries and abstracts to: Elaine R. Miller Dept. of Modern and Classical Languages Georgia State University Atlanta, GA 30303 404-651-2265 emiller3 @ gsu.edu

Date: Mon, 18 Feb 2002 09:53 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Digitized Purim Sounds online from National Sound Archives (fwd)

This website includes songs in Judeo-Italian and Judeo-Spanish, as well as megilla reading traditions from around the world. Enjoy! http://jnul.huji.ac.il -Sarah ------------------------------------------------------------ > The Jewish National and University Library (JNUL) is happy to announce > the Internet accessibility of a third sample of digitized music from > its National Sound Archives. This selection includes both piyyutim and > reading of the initial verses of the Book of Esther as recorded from a > variety of Jewish communities and in various Jewish languages. > > The recordings can be accessed via the JNUL site at: > > http://jnul.huji.ac.il > > The National Sound Archives at the JNUL contain more than 7000 hours > of recorded music representing all Jewish and Israeli communities. The > entire archive is now being systematically digitized which will insure > both preservation of the materials and better access for researchers. > > The digitization of the National Sound Archives is part of the JNUL's > David and Fela Shapell Family Digitization Project. > > Hag Purim sameah. > > Elhanan > > Elhanan Adler > Director, MALMAD - Israel Center for Digital Information Services > Coordinator, Israel Inter-University Library Network > c/o Jewish National and University Library > P.O.B. 34165, Jerusalem 91341, Israel > Email: elhanan @ libnet.ac.il > Tel.: 972-2-6585005, FAX: 972-2-6511771, Home tel.: 972-2-6515977 > Mobile tel.: 972-58-505307

Date: Tue, 19 Feb 2002 16:49 -0500 
From: moshe cohen <mcohen1+ @ pitt.edu> 
Subject: Judeo- ARABIC 15-16 CENTURY

hI SARAH my name is moshe cohen,in sabbatical year at the university of Pittsburgh i wonder if you can circulate among the Jewish -Language list the fact that i am looking for manuscripts in Judeo- Arabic from the period of the expulson of Jews .Also, if there are any referenses,articles ,books about the expulsion of the Muslims from Andalucia,numbers ,locations etc..My book about Rabbi Saadia Ibn Danan's manuscript Sefer-Hasharashim was published recently. thank you moshe cohen

Date: Mon, 18 Feb 2002 18:37 -0800 
From: James Ward <jamesward @ earthlink.net> 
Subject: Fwd: NEW: Handbook of Language Variation (ed. P. Trudgill et al)

Begin forwarded message: > From: J L Speranza <jls @ netverk.com.ar> > Date: Mon Feb 18, 2002 09:29:18 AM US/Pacific > To: Multiple recipients of list EDIE-CECTAL <edie-cectal @ sheffield.ac.uk> > Subject: NEW: Handbook of Language Variation (ed. P. Trudgill et al) > Reply-To: edie-cectal @ sheffield.ac.uk > > From LINGUIST List: Vol-13-437. Feb 17 2002. ISSN: 1068-4875. > Home Page: http://linguistlist.org/ > > NEW BOOK FROM BLACKWELL PUBLISHING > > The Handbook of Language Variation and Change > Edited by J.K. Chambers > Peter Trudgill > Natalie Schilling-Estes > > The Handbook of Language Variation and Change, written by a > distinguished international roster of contributors, reflects the > vitality and growth of the discipline in its multifaceted pursuits. It > is a convenient, hand-held repository of the essential knowledge about > the study of language variation and change. > > The book begins with an examination of the methodologies employed by > linguists working in linguistic variation and change, and then > addresses the levels of linguistic structure that have been the main > foci of work in the field. The volume presents views of linguistic > variation in the diverse contexts that give it meaning and > significance, across generations, social strata, and domains of > interaction. It further covers variation through geographical space, > and language and dialect contact from a variationist perspective, > while also considering the implications that research in different > types of societies may have for work in the field. > > Each section begins with an introduction by the editors which sets out > the boundaries of the field and places each of the chapters in > perspective. This Handbook allows the next generation of academics to > perpetuate all of these fields of study and explore them with the kind > of depth unimaginable to their predecessors. > > Contents: > List of Contributors. Preface. > > J. K. Chambers > > Studying Language Variation: An Informal Epistemology > > Part I: Methodologies: > > Field Methods: > > Introduction: Natalie Schilling-Estes > > 1. Entering the Community: Field Work: Crawford Feagin > > 2. Language with an Attitude: Dennis Preston > > 3. Investigating Variation and Change in Written Documents: Edgar W. > Schneider > > 4. Inferring Variation and Change from Public Corpora: Laurie Bauer > > Evaluation: > > Introduction: J.K. Chambers > > 5. The Quantitative Paradigm: Robert Bayley > > 6. Implicational Scales: John R. Rickford > > 7. Instrumental Phonetics: Erik R. Thomas > > Part II: Linguistic Structure: > > Introduction: Natalie Schilling-Estes > > 8. Variation and Phonological Theory: Arto Anttila > > 9. Investigating Chain Shifts and Mergers: Matthew Gordon } > > 10. Variation and Syntactic Theory: Alison Henry > > 11. Discourse Variation: Ronald Macaulay > > Part III: Social Factors: > > Time: > > Introduction: Natalie Schilling-Estes > > 12. Real and Apparent Time: Guy Bailey > > 13. Child Language Variation: Julie Roberts > > 14. Patterns of Variation, Including Change: > > Social Differentiation: > > Introduction: Peter Trudgill > > 15. Investigating Stylistic Variation: Natalie Schilling-Estes > > 16. Social Class: Sharon Ash > > 17. Sex and Gender in Variationist Research: Jenny Cheshire (Queen Mary > and Westfield College, University of London, England). > > 18. Ethnicity: Carmen Fought > > Domains: > > Introduction: Peter Trudgill > > 19. Language and Identity: Norma Mendoza-Denton > > 20. The Family: Kirk Hazen > > 21. Communities of Practice: Miriam Meyerhoff > > 22. Social Networks: Lesley Milroy > > 23. The Speech Community: Peter L. Patrick (Essex University, England). > > Part IV: Contact: > > Introduction: Peter Trudgill > > 24. Space and Spatial Diffusion: David Britain (Essex University, > England). > > 25. Linguistic Outcomes of Language Contact: Gillian Sankoff > > 26. Koineization and Accommodation: Paul Kerswill (Reading University, > England). > > Part V: Language and Societies: > > Introduction: J.K. Chambers > > 27. Linguistic and Social Typology: Peter Trudgill > > 28. Comparative Sociolinguistics: Sali Tagliamonte (University of York, > England). > > 29. Language Death and Dying: Walt Wolfram > > Index. HB: 0-631-21803-3. 807 pp / November 2001 > > == > J L Speranza, Esq > Country Town > St Michael's Hall Suite 5/8 > Calle 58, No 611 Calle Arenales 2021 > La Plata CP 1900 Recoleta CP 1124 > Tel 00541148241050 Tel 00542214257817 > BUENOS AIRES, Argentina > Telefax 00542214259205 > http://www.netverk.com.ar/~jls/ > jls @ netverk.com.ar

Date: Tue, 19 Feb 2002 22:48 -0800 
From: James Ward <jamesward @ earthlink.net> 
Subject: book from SOTA

Hello everybody! Perhaps I should have forwarded the whole list of the three new books, but it's relatively long, and this book is the one that inspired me to send notice of its existence. If anyone would like the whole mailing, I can send it individually. And incidentally, my silence does not mean that I don't plan to continue discussion of the script issues. I have been given a lot to think about, and I am still thinking! Thank you all again for such stimulating responses. James #3. TURKISH JEWISH ENCOUNTERS Studies on Turkish Jewish Relations Through the Ages Edited by Mehmet Tütüncü ISBN 90-804409-4-9 Published and distributed by SOTA, Haarlem 2001 approx. 350 pages, with 12 plates, documents (facsimiles), index, bibliography ********* From the first meeting in the start of the dark Middle ages where the Turkish Khazar Kaghans converted to Judaism into modern times Turks and Jews have enjoyed periods of remarkable close ties. These many faceted relations is the subject of the studies in these book. These relations were always a contrast to the experience of Jews in Western Europe. In Five Chapters of these books five facets of Turkish Jewish interactions are explored: TABLE OF CONTENTS: Mehmet Tütüncü Introduction 9 Part 1 Khazar Myth and Realities Peter B. GOLDEN Khazars 15 Benjamin BRAUDE Myths and Realities of Turkish-Jewish Contacts 29 Part 2 Karaims and Crimea Ananiasz ZAJACZKOWSKI Karaims: Origin and History (Ethnogenesis) 51 Moshe GAMMER The Karaites of Crimea during the Crimean War: A French Report 65 Dan SHAPIRA A Karaim Poem in Crimean-Tatar from Mangup: a Source for Jewish-Turkish History (Judaeo-Turcica III) 81 Part 3: Ottoman Empire Wout van BEKKUM Jews in the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey 101 Bülent ÖZDEMIR The Jews of Salonica and the Reforms 109 Mahir SAUL The Mother Tongue of the Polyglot, Cosmopolitism and nationalism Among the Sepharadim of Istanbul 131 Yitzchak KEREM Jewish-Turkish Muslim Relations in the Greek Peninsula during the 19th and early 20th Centuries 171 Ali GÜLER (Turkish-Jewish relations in the light of some Archive Documents about the Last Grand-Rabbi of the Ottoman Empire Hayim Nahum Efendi) (article in Turkish) 185 Salahi R. SONYEL Turco-Jewish relations During the First World war and Turkey's war of Liberation 225 Part 4: Sabbatean Experience Gad NASSI Exploring the Pagan, Jewish and Ottoman Roots of the ìSabbatean Lamb Festivalî 241 Gad NASSI Three Sabbatean Objects 261 M. Avrum EHRLICH Sabbatean Messianism as Proto-Secularism: Examples in Modern Turkey and Zionism 273 Part 5: World WAR II Stanford J. SHAW Turkey and the Jews of Europe during World war II 301 Antero LEITZINGER Lessons from Integration of Aliens in Finland (1917-1944) 319 ********** TO ORDER THIS BOOK... The price is $ 45 + 10 postage. For ordering please fill the form below and e-mail to <sota @ wanadoo.nl> Tel/fax:: + 31 23 5292883 more info about the book: http://www.euronet.nl/users/sota/turkjew.htm TO ORDER THE BOOKS... -------------------------------------------------- I would like to order _ copie(s) Turkish Jewish Encounters I would like to order _ copie(s) REFORM MOVEMENTS AND REVOLUTIONS IN TURKISTAN(1900-1924) I would like to order _ copie(s) PAX OTTOMANA Studies in Memoriam Nejat Goyunc Prices: Turkish Jeiwsh Encounters USD 45 REFORM MOVEMNETS AND REVOLUTION USD 45 PAX OTTOMANA USD 65 Methods of payment: ( ) Cash by post ( ) American Express/Eurocard/Mastercard, Fill in further ( ) Bank Account 6293434 on the name of SOTA (Stichting Onderzoek Turkestan) Postbus 9642, 2003 LP Haarlem Netherlands, please add 10 Dollars bank costs. The book will be sent postage paid to your adress after receiving of your payment: Delivery 3 to 5 weeks Date: ________________________________ Name:_________________________________ Adres: _______________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ Telephone:____________________________ e-mail:____________ ( ) Please debit my credit card: for an amount of: US Dollars: ______ Credit card:____________________ Number ______________________ Expiry Date: ___________________ Signature: __________________ ( ) I have paid via bank account next amount USD:________ Please fax this to next adress telephone/fax numbers: SOTA Tel/fax:: + 31 23 5292883 or mail to SOTA P.O. box 9642 2003 LP Haarlem Netherlands e-mail for further information: SOTA P.O. box 9642 2003 LP Haarlem Netherlands

Date: Mon, 25 Feb 2002 11:50 +0100 
From: Marion Aptroot <aptroot @ phil-fak.uni-duesseldorf.de> 
Subject: Symposium for Yiddish Studies in Germany, 23-25 September 2002

Fifth Symposium for Yiddish Studies in Germany 23-25 September 2002 The Fifth Symposium for Yiddish Studies in Germany will be held September 23-25 at the Heinrich Heine University in Duesseldorf. This annual Yiddish Symposium is organized alternately by the Yiddish programs at the universities of Trier and Duesseldorf and is intended to offer students and scholars the possibility to present their research, exchange ideas and put forward questions for discussion. We invite you to submit abstracts for 20 min. papers until June 1, 2002. Presentations can be held in Yiddish or German. As usual, we have decided not to devote the symposium to a single topic in order not to exclude any of the fields of research within Yiddish Studies. Interdisciplinary papers with a connection to Yiddish Studies is welcome. The symposium is open to all those interested in Yiddish Studies. There is no conference fee. We do ask participants to register as soon as possible at the address below. Regularly updated information can be found under: http://www.phil-fak.uni-duesseldorf.de/jiddisch/ We are also happy to answer questions by mail, fax or e-mail. Simon Neuberg (University of Trier) and Marion Aptroot (University of Duesseldorf) Abteilung fuer Jiddische Kultur, Sprache und Literatur Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf Universitaetsstr.1 / Gebaeude 23.03 40225 Duesseldorf Germany Fax: +49-211-81-12027 e-mail: jiddisch @ phil-fak.uni-duesseldorf.de

March 2002

Date: Sat, 2 Mar 2002 15:00 -0800 
From: James Ward <jamesward @ earthlink.net> 
Subject: Printing, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Persian

Hello All! Does anyone know about the development of printing presses for the publishing of works in Judeo-Arabic and Judeo-Persian? Or perhaps I should say, are these languages sufficiently different in their orthography that they would require a slightly different set of type than that afforded by Hebrew, in the way that Dzhudezmo and Yiddish do? I mentioned in my first e-mail that I had heard of the printing of Judeo-Persian newspapers and other texts in Palestine in the late 19th century, but had really only seen one modern Judeo-Persian work, a phrase-book for immigrants (representing Persian, German, Russian, Spanish, and Hebrew, I think that's all of them...) which had an introduction in Judeo-Persian in Hebrew script. It occurs to me that I always assumed that the Judeo-Persian newspapers were in Hebrew script, but actually haven't seen them to verify this. How often is this language printed in Persian script? Has any kind of mass-publishing of Judeo-Arabic in Hebrew script occurred, other than in scholarly publications that distribute printed editions of manuscript works? Lots of questions. I hope that they are stimulating rather than merely annoying! All the best! James

Date: Sun, 3 Mar 2002 12:44 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: In search of Judeo-Persian scholars

James Ward's interesting question reminds me that we still don't have anyone to write the Judeo-Persian description for the website. As the people who have written (or are finishing up) the descriptions for Yiddish, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Greek, etc., can tell you, it does not take much time. If you or someone you know is interested in doing this, please contact me at sbenor @ stanford.edu - thanks! -Sarah

Date: Sun, 3 Mar 2002 12:47 -0800 
From: Heidi G. Lerner <lerner @ sulmail.stanford.edu> 
Subject: Computing and Jewish Studies

I would like to propose a session at the 2002 Association of Jewish Studies conference (Los Angeles, CA, Dec. 15-17, 2002) meeting that looks at present and future developments in computing and Jewish Studies. Topics for papers could include: 1) the application and use of digital media (images, audio and video); 2) new developments in text encoding, hypermedia, text analysis, and text corpora; 3) the cultural and social impact of computing and new electronic media; 4) use of information technology in curriculum development; 5) impact of multilingual computing and Unicode on Jewish Studies; 6) electronic publishing This message is being cross-posted to several lists. If you are interested in participating, please contact me at: lerner @ sulmail.stanford.edu Heidi G. Lerner Hebraica/Judaica Cataloger Catalog Dept. Stanford Univ. Libraries Stanford, CA 94305-6004 ph: 650-725-9953 fax: 650-725-1120 e-mail: lerner @ sulmail.stanford.edu

Date: Sun, 3 Mar 2002 13:02 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: borrowing Hebrew verbs

There was recently a useful summary on Linguist List about why nouns are more easily borrowed than verbs. It included a bibliography on this topic. You can read it at http://linguistlist.org/issues/13/13-588.html I'm wondering how Jewish languages borrow Hebrew verbs. In Yiddish, Judezmo, and Jewish English there are (a) periphrastic constructions and (b) verbal morphology combined with loan words, which are often originally agentive nouns: (a) maskim zayn, ser mafsik, to be mevatel (b) hargenen, malshinar, pasken ("He paskens") Do other Jewish languages form verbs in similar ways? -Sarah Bunin Benor Stanford University

Date: Tue, 5 Mar 2002 09:17 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: AJS Call for Papers (posted to H-Judaic)

Below is the information about AJS 2002 Call for Papers. As Lewis Glinert posted a few months ago, the suggested topics for Language this year are: - Jewish discourse - The emergence of modern Hebrew - Trends in Jewish literacy - Typology and theory of Jewish languages - Jewish language and gender - Language shift between Jewish languages - Jewish language death Feel free to post ideas for specific panels to this list. -Sarah From: jbaskin <jbaskin @ OREGON.UOREGON.EDU> Subject: FYI: AJS Call for Papers Call for Paper information for the 2002 AJS conference in Los Angeles is now posted on the AJS website, <www.brandeis.edu/ajs>. All submissions will be electronic this year. Deadline for submissions is April 19. At the time of submission, conference registration fees and 2002-2003 membership dues must also be paid. New members are welcome. Judith Baskin, Vice-President for Program Judith R. Baskin Director, The Harold Schnitzer Family Program in Judaic Studies Professor of Religious Studies 5273 University of Oregon jbaskin @ oregon.uoregon.edu

Date: Tue, 5 Mar 2002 17:48 -0800 
From: James Ward <jamesward @ earthlink.net> 
Subject: Re: Printing, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Persian

Hello Everybody, Professor Norman Stillman sent these interesting responses to my query regarding modern printing of Judeo-Arabic and Judeo-Persian. They are well worth reading! To those of you who have privately responded to my earlier questions, the fact that I am sending this one and not yours does not mean that I considered your reply to not be worth reading, but rather that I am only now establishing a procedure for redistributing information. Best wishes, James From: norman stillman <nstillman2001 @ yahoo.com> Date: Sun Mar 03, 2002 06:43:37 AM US/Pacific To: James Ward <jamesward @ earthlink.net> Subject: Re: Printing, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Persian In response to James Ward's query: Books, periodicals,and individual printed sheeted in Judeo-Arabic were pubished in the 19th and 20th centuries throughout the Arabic-speaking world and as far east as Calcutta. These texts were published in both Rashi and square typeset. The largest number of Judeo-Arabic publications were printed in Tunisia. See the Harvard catalogue of Hebrew publications in the subsection on Judeo-Arabic. See also Eusebe Vassel, <<La litterature populaire des Israelites tunisiens,>> in Revue Tunisienne (1904-1907), and Robert Attal, Periodique juifs d'Afrique du Nord (Jerusalem: Ben-Zvi Institute, 1980. From: norman stillman <nstillman2001 @ yahoo.com> Date: Mon Mar 04, 2002 11:53:55 PM US/Pacific To: James Ward <jamesward @ earthlink.net> Subject: Re: Printing, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Persian Dear James, Please feel free to post my or anyone else's response. By the way, I do not think that I answered your query concerning modifications for Arabic sounds not found in Hebrew. There was no standardized format for transcribing certain sounds. Sometimes diacriticals were added to certain Hebrew letters, so that <<Sadi>> with a dot above or a slash might be used for Arabic <<DaD>>, but at the same time elsewhere, one finds <<daleth>> used for it as well. With best wishes, NAS

Date: Wed, 6 Mar 2002 13:43 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: list details

Hello, subscribers. Some of you have brought to my attention a few issues about posting messages to the list: 1) When you respond to someone's query, please respond to the whole list, unless you have a reason not to. This is the common practice of some other lists (including H-Judaic), and it facilitates an easy and useful exchange of information. I think this is an especially good idea on this list, where scholars of one Jewish language might be interested in issues of another Jewish language. 2) Please do not post messages in HTML format, as this can cause problems for certain mailers. Please contact me with any questions about list protocol. Thanks, Sarah Bunin Benor Jewish-Languages list moderator

Date: Fri, 8 Mar 2002 14:02 +0900 
From: Tsuguya Sasaki <ts @ ts-cyberia.net> 
Subject: Archives

Dear subscribers, I am happy to inform you that the updated archives of this mailing list are ready for your viewing pleasure at the following new location: http://www.jewish-languages.org/ml/ New messages posted to the list will be archived every Friday. Tsuguya Sasaki http://www.ts-cyberia.net/

Date: Wed, 20 Mar 2002 13:10 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Solitreo

A professor at the University of Pennsylvania has a letter from Bulgaria from 1900 written in Solitreo, and he'd like to have it transliterated into Latin letters. The letter is six lines long and written in very flowery handwriting (I was not able to decipher much of it even with the help of Bunis' textbook). If you are willing to try it, please contact Jacob Nachmias <nachmias @ cattell.psych.upenn.edu> to arrange details of payment. -Sarah Bunin Benor

Date: Thu, 21 Mar 2002 06:57 +0100 
From: Jacob Hassán <hassan @ filol.csic.es> 
Subject: carta en solitreo

Caro Jacob Nachmias: Tendré mucho placer en intentar "descifrar" (o meldar) la carta escrita en solitreo, que he conocido a través de la lista "jewish-languages" de Sarah Bunin Benor. Please send me a reproduction of good quality to my postal address below. Thank you. Sano y bueno que estés. De / Ex / From: Iacob M. Hassán Estudios Sefardíes, CSIC; Duque de Medinaceli 6; 28014 Madrid (España) tf. (34)91-429.0626 (ext. 2802), cel. (34)609-13.1914; fax (34)91-369.0940 e-mail: hassan @ filol.csic.es

Date: Thu, 21 Mar 2002 15:31 -0500 
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu> 
Subject: Fw: Ladino Transliteration Of Hebrew Letters

Hello to the hevra! I'm forwarding three messages which may be of interest. The first two are from the Unicode list, the last, just a bit of pre-exodus cheer. Note that the first of these is in UTF-8 format, and not all the characters may convert properly through the list-serv (it requires either the Arial MS Unicode or Code2000 font). If anyone would like to receive a copy directly, please feel free to e-mail me. Kol tuv, SJ ----- Original Message ----- From: Robert To: unicode @ unicode.org Sent: Tuesday, March 19, 2002 1:00 AM Subject: Ladino Transliteration Of Hebrew Letters Hello, Unicoders!! About the transliteration of the Hebrew letters for the Ladino (Judeo-Spanish, Ŷuđeẑmo) language, an acceptable system for that is one used by Padre (=Father) Pascal Recuero (which looks Esperanto-like, as can be seen just below): ʾalef—' (apostrophe) beth-daghesh—b beth-rafeh—{b-bar (b with crossbar through ascender)}** ————[or, use b̶ (which'll put crossbar through body instead)] gimmel-daghesh—g gimmel-rafeh—ǥ (g-bar [bar through descender]) gimmel-garshem—ŷ (y-circumflex) gimmel-wariqaʾ—ĉ (c-circumflex) daleth-daghesh—d daleth-rafeh—đ (d-bar [bar through ascender]) heʾ—h heʾ-mappiq—ḥ (h-underdot) waw—ṿ (v-underdot) double waw ligature—w, vowels /u/, /o/, or diphthongs /wu/, /wo/ waw-yudh ligature—diphthongs /uy/, /oy/, /we/ zayin—ẑ (z-circumflex) zayin-garshem—ĵ (j-circumflex) zayin-rafeh—dẑ (digraph of *d* with *z-circumflex*) kheth—j kheth-rafeh—ḫ (h-rocker [breve underneath], also called *kharn*) teth—ṭ (t-underdot) teth-rafeh—ḍ (d-underdot) yudh—ẏ (y-overdot) double yudh ligature—y, vowels /i/, /e/, or diphthongs /yi/, /ye/ yudh-waw ligature—vowels /ü/, /ö/, or diphthongs /yu/, /yo/ kaf—k kaf-rafeh——{k-bar (k with crossbar through ascender)}** ————[or, use k̶ (which'll put crossbar through body instead)] lamedh—l lamedh-wariqaʾ—ĺ (l-acute) mem-m nun-n nun-wariqaʾ—ñ (n-tilde) samekh—ṣ (s-underdot) ʿayin—c ʿayin-rafeh—ġ (g-overdot) ʿayin-garshem—ṅ (n-overdot) peʾ—p peʾ-rafeh—f tsaddi-ts quf-q reʾsh—r sin-s shin—x taw—t taw-rafeh—z This transliteration system for Ladino is based on Padre Recuero's scheme (used in a Spanish book on the Haketia dialect in Morocco); while it looks Esperanto-like in a modified Spanish-style dress, it's the best romanization scheme for Ladino that I've read and heard of. *Kheth* is respelled , while *shin*'s rendered with , and *taw* having a *rafeh* atop gets rewritten with —all like in Spanish!! What's more—* `ayin* with a *garshem* to its left is rendered as an (and read as the *ng* nasal sound, like in _thi*ng*_). I do hope this e-mail will help you in the area of Ladino. Please print off this message for your reference. Thank You! Robert Lloyd Wheelock Augusta, ME USA **The needed characters {b-bar} and {k-bar} both need to be proposed into Unicode, along with the {y-breve} that Latin and a few other languages use. ——R.L.W.

Date: Thu, 21 Mar 2002 15:31 -0500 
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu> 
Subject: Fw: Ladino Transliteration Of Hebrew Letters

----- Original Message ----- From: "Miikka-Markus Alhonen" <Miikka-Markus.Alhonen @ tigatieto.com> To: "Robert" <bob4you27 @ excite.com> Cc: <unicode @ unicode.org> Sent: Tuesday, March 19, 2002 5:53 AM Subject: RE: Ladino Transliteration Of Hebrew Letters > On 19-Mar-02 Robert wrote: > > **The needed characters {b-bar} and {k-bar} both need to be proposed into > > Unicode, along with the {y-breve} that Latin and a few other languages use. > > <b-bar> = U+0180 > <y-breve> = <y> <breve> = U+0079 U+0306 > > <k-bar>, however, might be missing. This one is quite frequent also in Semitic > linguistics, where a bar through some letters (b, d, k) means a spirantized > pronunciation of the plosive. > > In some books about Semitic linguistics spirantized /g/ is shown as a Gaelic > <g>. Should this be represented with small letter yogh U+021D? > > Best regards, > Miikka-Markus Alhonen

Date: Thu, 21 Mar 2002 15:32 -0500 
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu> 
Subject: Fw: Farshtaist

Farshtaist? By: Arthur H. Rosen Yiddish was the secret code therefore I don't farshtaist, A biseleh maybe here and there, the rest has gone to waste. Sadly when I hear it now, I only get the gist, My bobbeh spoke it beautifully; but me, I am tsemisht. So och un vai as I should say, or even oy vai iz mir, Though my pisk is lacking Yiddish, it's familiar to my ear. And I'm no Chaim Yonkel, in fact I was shtick naches, But when it comes to Yiddish though, I'm talking out my toches. Es iz a shandeh far di kinder that I don't know it better (Though it's really nisht kefelecht when one needs to write a letter). But, when it comes to characters there's really no contention, No other linguist can compete with honorable mentshen. They have nebbishes and nebechels and others without mazel, Then too, shmendriks and shlemiels and let's not forget shlimazel. These words are so precise, and descriptive to the listener, So much better than "a pill" is to call someone farbissener. Or that a brazen woman would be better called chaleria, And you'll agree farklempt says more than does hysteria. I'm not haken dir a tsheinik and I hope I'm not a kvetch, But isn't mieskeit kinder than to call someone a wretch? Mitten derinnen, I hear bobbeh say, "It's nechtiker tog, don't fear, To me you're still a maiven Zol zein shah, don't fill my ear. A lieben ahf dein kepele, I don't mean to interrupt, But you are speaking narishkeit? And a gezunt auf dein kop!"

April 2002

Date: Wed, 10 Apr 2002 08:43 -0700 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: from Norman Stillman

From: norman stillman <nstillman2001 @ yahoo.com> Subject: Query: Curses I am seeking references on the subject of curses (maledictions), insults, and gibes in Yiddish, Judeo-Spanish or other Jewish languages for comparative purposes. Any assistance would be greatly appreciated. Thank you. Noam Stillman University of Oklahoma Currently at INALCO (Paris) nstillman @ ou.edu or nstillman2001 @ yahoo.com

Date: Wed, 10 Apr 2002 10:00 -0700 
From: weigelw @ socrates.berkeley.edu 
Subject: Re: from Norman Stillman

In response to the query about curses, insults, etc., an excellect resource for Yiddish is: Matisoff, James A. 2000. Blessings, Curses, Hopes, and Fears: Psycho-ostensive Expressions in Yiddish. 2nd ed. Stanford: Standford University Press. William F. Weigel Department of Linguistics U.C. Berkeley

Date: Wed, 10 Apr 2002 13:51 -0400 
From: George Jochnowitz <jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu> 
Subject: taboo

Scialomme, If anyone would like me to snail-mail them a copy of "Religion and Taboo in Lason Akosdesh (Judeo-Piedmontese)" or "Lexical Items Collected by Zalman Yovely," both of which discuss taboo, I can do so if you send me your snail-mail address. You can e-mail me at the above address or at jochnow @ con2.com George Jochnowitz

Date: Wed, 10 Apr 2002 19:48 +0100 
From: palma @ gmx.co.uk 
Subject: Re: taboo

yes, thank you PALMA 40 rue de montmorency f75003 paris france (not texas...)

Date: Sun, 14 Apr 2002 22:35 -0700 
From: James Ward <jamesward @ earthlink.net> 
Subject: klezmer-loshn

Greetings to all, I have just encountered the term "klezmer-loshn." Does anyone know if any studies have been done of this? Many thanks, James

Date: Wed, 17 Apr 2002 18:54 -0700 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Re: klezmer-loshn

In response to James' question, here's a response from Jim Loeffler, who works on klezmer history: -Sarah From: J. Loeffler <jbl37 @ columbia.edu> Robert Rothstein's article on klezmer-loshn appears in the journal Judaism, in the winter 1998 issue, and is actually available on-line somewhere, I believe. It will be republished in an anthology by Mark Slobin this spring. That is probably his most substantial writing on klezmer-loshn. Much of his work is based on earlier studies by Jewish folklorists such as: 1) Samuel Weissenberg--"Die 'Klesmer' Sprache" in Mitteilungen der anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien 43:127-42 (1913) 2) Alfred Landau--"Zur Russich-Judischen 'Klesmer'-Sprache" Mitteilungen der anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien 43:127-42 (1913) Rothstein also cites other scholarship and some great literary examples of it, mostly from sholom aleichem.

Date: Wed, 17 Apr 2002 20:21 -0700 
From: James Ward <jamesward @ earthlink.net> 
Subject: Re: klezmer-loshn

Many thanks to Mikhl and Sarah (and Jim Loeffler) for your answers! These will be excellent sources with which to begin an inquiry. Appreciative regards (which sounds much too stiff and formal for what I wish to convey), James

Date: Wed, 17 Apr 2002 21:07 -0700 
From: James Ward <jamesward @ earthlink.net> 
Subject: Re: klezmer-loshn

I don't know if I'm doing something unethical here or not, but here is an interesting exchange from the Jewish-music list that I found by searching for "Robert Rothstein klezmer-loshn." The messages are from late January and February of 2000. Anyone desiring further particulars of the messages can find them at http://shamash.org/listarchives/jewish-music/000121 (It never even occurred to me that there might be anything on-line about such an esoteric subject, even though I found the term "klezmer-loshn" on a web-page. True, there isn't much, but here is this exchange, with a gem or two to be found therein...) James

Date: Thu, 18 Apr 2002 06:50 -0700 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Academic boycott of Israel (fwd)

Politics aside, this is an important issue of academic cooperation. -Sarah ---------------------------------------------------------- Date: Tue, 16 Apr 2002 11:25:23 +0100 From: aaron benavot <msbenavo @ mscc.huji.ac.il> To: SOCIOLOGY LIST <sociohuji @ yahoogroups.com> Subject: [sociohuji] New Web site to register your opposition to European Boycott of Israeli Academia Dear Colleagues: As you may or may not know, a call for a moratorium on all European-Israeli academic and cultural ties signed by 120 European professors (mainly from the UK) was published on April 6 in The Guardian (see http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4388633,00.html). (A similar call has been initiated the USA and according to yesterday's HaAretz, the original petition has over 400 signatories). In response to protest letters by Professor Hillel Shuval, Dr. Aaron Benavot and Dr. Eva Illouz, which were circulated in Israel, Europe and North America, individuals were asked to send an email OPPOSING this initiative. Within several days we had received over 230 emails protesting the proposed European boycott of scientific and cultural ties in Israel. A new statement of protest has been collectively hammered out and placed on a special web site to collect signatories. The web site address is: http://www.geocities.com/euroisrael2002/ A list of initial signatories (pre-web site) can be found at: http://www.geocities.com/euroisrael2002/old-list.html Even if you have sent an email of support previously, we ask you to visit the web site, read the declaration and submit your name in support of the new statement of protest. Please remember that the guestbook often fills up quickly (there is a maximum of 50 names at a time), so if you are unable to sign in at some point, try again. We also ask that you circulate this information to colleagues and friends abroad, especially in Europe, who are inclined to oppose to the proposed boycott. Thank you very much for your support. Aaron Benavot and Eva Illouz P.S. If you would like copies of the letters preapred by Shoval, Benavot and Illouz, please inform me via email. P.S.2. If you would like to circulate a copy of the statement in German or French please send me an email at msbenavo @ mscc.huji.ac.il

Date: Fri, 19 Apr 2002 09:02 -0700 
From: Thamar Gindin <thmrgndn @ yahoo.com> 
Subject: maledictions, benedictions and oaths

If you are also interested in all of the above in Jewish Iranian dialects, look for S. Soroudi, Judeo-Persian Religious Oath Formulas as Compared with Non-Jewish Iranian Traditions, Irano-Judaica 2 (1990), pp. 167-183. (some of these oaths are benedictions and maledictions) and A. Netzer "beraxot, qelalot u-shvu'ot etsel yehudei Isfahan" - mikedem u-miyam 4 (1991) (I have pp.197-198 but it's probably wrong, the paper is much longer). Best of luck THMR

Date: Sat, 20 Apr 2002 19:48 -0700 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: AJS submission deadline extension

---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Fri, 19 Apr 2002 16:56:40 -0400 From: Association for Jewish Studies <ajs @ brandeis.edu> Dear Colleagues, It has become apparent that in the rush leading up to the deadline of at the end of the day yesterday, many potential applicants were unable to complete their submissions for the conference in a timely manner. We have, accordingly, extended the deadline for new submissions and for the editing of previous submissions to 5 PM EDT this coming Monday, April 22. The AJS office will be glad to assist with any technical issues--please do not let any technical problem stand in the way of any potential submission. For issues pertaining to topic or subject matter only, please feel free to write Prof. Judith Baskin, the conference chair, <jbaskin @ oregon.uoregon.edu> prior to the new deadline. Thank you to all who have already submitted proposals for their gracious response to our new system. We apologize for any glitches you may have encountered, but we want to assure you that we have taken every possible step to assure a smooth process and have earnestly tried to remedy all problems of which we have been made aware. Yours sincerely, Aaron L. Katchen Executive Director ************************************************************** Association for Jewish Studies Lawrence H. Schiffman, Ph.D., President Aaron L. Katchen, Ph.D., Executive Director MS 011 email: ajs @ brandeis.edu Brandeis University Voice: (781) 736-2981 P.O. Box 549110 FAX: (781) 736-2982 Waltham, MA 02454-9110 http://www.brandeis.edu/ajs **************************************************************

May 2002

Date: Thu, 2 May 2002 00:26 -0700 
From: Yona Sabar <sabar @ humnet.ucla.edu> 
Subject: Fwd: baqasha

Date: Thu, 2 May 2002 00:20:21 -0700 To: Alexander Tamar, nstillman2001 @ yahoo.com From: Yona Sabar <sabar @ humnet.ucla.edu> Subject: baqasha > Dear Colleagues > > Can you please help me explaining the puzzling words at the end of this > Ladino eHad mi yodea' : following Uno es nuestro Dio en los cielos > y en la tierra, follows: la illa illa 'Allah, la illa w'adar hu, > singa musa catarulala (see this website and hear it as well: > http://jnul.huji.ac.il/). Obviously it is a Judaized version of > the Islamic shahada formula with some words corrupted (singa = > sidna? w'adar hu = waHdahu? catarulala = ikhtara allah?). Have > you seen it elsewhere? Also notice also that instead of "thirteen > midayya" it has thirteen tefillin... Tamar, can you please forward this email to my friend Ya'acov Ben Tolila as well? Toda, kol Tuv, Yona -- Yona Sabar, Professor of Hebrew and Aramaic Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1511 (home) 310-474-6430 (office) 310-206-1389 Fax: to Prof. Sabar at (310) 206-6456.

Date: Tue, 14 May 2002 11:06 -0700 
From: K I Weiser <kiw2 @ u.washington.edu> 
Subject: Introduction

I am presently a post-doctoral fellow in Jewish Studies at the University of Washington in Seattle. I will be joining the faculty of York University in Toronto, Canada in autumn as professor of Holocaust and Eastern European Jewry. My interests include Jewish languages (esp. Yiddish and Hebrew), Jewish interlinguistics, and modern Jewish history. I have recently written a dissertation about Jewish politics and Yiddishism in pre-WWII Poland and also researched questions in the standardization of Yiddish spelling and pronunciation (forthcoming articles). KI Weiser University of Washington

Date: Thu, 16 May 2002 11:48 -0700 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: introductions

Thank you to K I Weiser for sending an introduction to the list upon joining. I'd like to remind others who have joined recently that it's nice to tell the list who you are and what languages you're interested in. Chag sameach, Sarah Bunin Benor Moderator, Jewish Languages Listserve

Date: Thu, 16 May 2002 12:55 -0700 
From: Yona Sabar <sabar @ humnet.ucla.edu> 
Subject: Re: introductions

Dear Colleagues, May I suggest using capital H for transliteration of Hebrew Het, rather than ch, because it is more neutral in terms of the various Jewish languages in east and west. So let us wish each other : Hag Shavu&ot sameaH (and so Happy Hanukkah, rather than Chanukkah, etc.). kol Tuv (T for Tet) Yona Sabar

Date: Sun, 19 May 2002 19:01 -0700 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Solitreo re-request

Jacob Nachnias, a professor at the University of Pennsylvania, is still looking for someone to decipher his Solitreo letter from Bulgaria from 1900. The letter is six lines long and written in very flowery handwriting. If you are willing to transliterate it into Latin letters, please contact Jacob Nachmias directly <nachmias @ cattell.psych.upenn.edu> to arrange details of payment. -Sarah Bunin Benor

Date: Mon, 20 May 2002 09:13 -0400 
From: Weiser, Jonathan M. <jweiser @ morrisjames.com> 
Subject: Re: introductions

For my part, I cannot sign on to the H, or the ampersand for &Ayin, either. Please accept my old-fashioned fuddy-duddiness as a personal quirk rather than as a political statement. A Git Shviyis and a Git Zimmer to all.

Date: Mon, 20 May 2002 22:50 +0900 
From: Tsuguya Sasaki <ts @ ts-cyberia.net> 
Subject: SAMPA - IPA mapped onto ASCII

Dear Colleagues, Speaking of transcription, you may be interested to know that there is a rather widely used proposal called SAMPA (and its extention X-SAMPA) - the International Phonetic Alphabet mapped onto ASCII: http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/sampa/home.htm http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/sampa/x-sampa.htm Tsuguya Sasaki http://www.ts-cyberia.net/

Date: Mon, 20 May 2002 10:41 -0400 
From: Weiser, Jonathan M. <jweiser @ morrisjames.com> 
Subject: Re: SAMPA - IPA mapped onto ASCII

Fine, fine. The IPA can also be stretched to fit around the pronunciations that more accurately reflect how our holy language, and the languages that we have sanctified, have been our vessels of thought and meaning throughout generations of exile. Standardizing Hebrew transcription to reflect some purportedly neutral, apolitical version of the language, after all, inflicts a great disservice on students and scholars of spoken languages. For what it is worth, I recommend a standard, non-vocalized letter-for-letter correspondence of 22 even randomly chosen Latin symbols, without regard for dual letters (bege"d-kefe"s or mantzefa"ch, etc.). This method would be no more than a way of writing Hebrew in the characters of a more universal script. It would facilitate cataloguing, alphabetization, computer use, and the like, and would work precisely as writing in actual Hebrew would, thus freeing readers to render the words phonetically as they are comfortable. Where necessary, standard symbols for vowels could also be employed, and these could be placed interconsonantally, but I recommend that the vocalized versions of words be conventionally presented parenthetically behind the non-vocalized version) in order not to disrupt expectations relating to alphabetizations and the like. The IPA or some other system could be adopted for phonetic/phonemic representations, each chosen to reflect the sound system that is relevant to the work in which a given representation, which, for clarity might appear between slashes or some other convention, is incorporated. At all events, I believe that it is high time for scholars of Jewish languages to formalize the distinction between the written and the spoken word and to stop pretending that great Chasidic thinkers, for example, had any thoughts at all on the Galut, Shabbat, or Merkavot; at least I have never heard any Rebbe utter those words, and I have spent many a Shalishidis by them (and nary a "se&udah shelishit(h)"). To take another example, is "Halut(h)" or "Chalois" the origin of the Yeshivishe word "Chalois"? Furthermore, is it even normatively correct to say that Halut(h) is itself the origin of Chalois? Is Chalois Yiddish, while Halut(h) is Hebrew, Aramaic, Talmudic, whatever? Enough said, I guess that I mean only that a conventionalized distinction among, non-vocalized Hebrew, vocalized Hebrew, and spoken Jewish languages is a proposition that I find attractive, that's all. Regards to all. Mind you, K I Weiser and I have discovered no family ties, so do not hold my ideas against him.

Mon, 20 May 2002 11:10 -0400 
From: Weiser, Jonathan M. <jweiser @ morrisjames.com> 
Subject: Re: SAMPA - IPA mapped onto ASCII

Just one little story, if I may indulge. My uncle, Miklos-bacsi, used to say jokingly that kabbulas haToireh was so important that the yomtov commemorating it has two full masechtos in the gemooreh, both pronounced "shviyis." Go transcribe that in Oxford. Jonathan M. Weiser Associate* Morris, James, Hitchens & Williams LLP 222 Delaware Avenue 10th Floor, P.O. Box 2306 Wilmington, DE 19899** USA *Not admitted to practice in Delaware **For courier deliveries, the Zip Code is 19801 Phone: (302) 888-5849 Fax: (302) 888-6989 http://www.morrisjames.com

Date: Mon, 20 May 2002 12:49 -0700 
From: Yona Sabar <sabar @ humnet.ucla.edu> 
Subject: &al HeT she-HaTanu

Dear Colleagues, In my previous email I neglected to mention why I object to using ch for Hebrew Het even in Ashkenazi>Israeli pronunciation. The letters ch in English do NOT stand for this sound (cf. Charles, church, etc.) and indeed I hear &amkha worshippers in the synagogues often pronounce them as is common in English (and many Gentiles pronounce ch in chuzpah and Chanukkah as in chattanuga and chicken...), and not as intended, and as in German (cf. Ich). Similarly kaf rafa should be transliterated as kh, not ch, hence the famous Genesis 12 parashah should be Lekh Lekha, rather than Lech Lecha. bi-vrakha ve-khol Tuv, Yona Sabar Dr. Yona Sabar, Professor of Hebrew and Aramaic, Dept. of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures, UCLA, Los Angeles, Ca 90095-1511; Tel (310) 474-6430 (H); (310) 206-1389 (O); Fax (310) 206-6456.

Date: Mon, 20 May 2002 17:53 -0700 
From: Yona Sabar <sabar @ humnet.ucla.edu> 
Subject: Re: &al HeT she-HaTanu

Hayim yaqiri, Thanks. Add to it pronunciations of family names such as Chyet, Chazen (<Y. Xayet, Xazen < H HayyaT "Taylor", Hazzan "Cantor") which have totally lost their etymological roots... Yona > Dear Yona: > > I agree with you one hundred procent. I am amazed that the name of William > Chomsky is pronounced Xomski, while the name of his son Noam > frequently sounds as Chomsky with /ch/ like in chisbat, Chile. > > Be-shalom, berakhot ve-hoqarah rabbah, > > Hayim. > > ======== > > Dr. Hayim Y. Sheynin > Adjunct Professor of Jewish Literature > Head of Reference Services > Tuttleman Library of Gratz College > 7605 Old York Rd. > Melrose Park, PA 19027 > > tel. 215 635-7300, ext. 161 fax: 215 635-7320 > e-mail: hsheynin @ gratz.edu

Date: Mon, 20 May 2002 22:07 -0400 
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu> 
Subject: Re: &al HeT she-HaTanu

Dear colleagues, I'm not quite certain about why the surprise of /H/, /tS/ <-- [ch]. I would simply refer to Saussure (BSR ed.) Introduction VI §4. Such changes indeed take place during the shared lifetimes of two generations, such as in the example of William and Noam. My own last name, if we are to go on both orthographic and pronunciation history guarantee the original /#y/ (the passport my great grandfather was Rumanian, and in Roman characters; his generation pronounced the surname /#'yæR Xo veR#/; my grandfather (the eldest) and his siblings pronounced it /#dj@r 'kau ^w^r\#/; my grandfather survived his son, my father, whose generation (and those succeeding) pronounced and still pronounce it /#'dj@r\ Sau^w:r\#/). Recent contact with third cousins (descendents from my great grandfather's brothers) confirm the exact and independent trend of pronunciation in their branches. Interestingly, since I am the only in my family to have returned to Europe and maintain contacts abroad, my surname "Jerchower" is typically read as /#'yEr ko ver#/ . As for the surname's origin, this is up for speculation. Since the [#j] = /#y/ among those who first brought it to the USA (ca. 1900), the /y/ seems reasonably assured, in contrast with the type "Tcherikover". The final [-er#] is likely toponymic. Could it be that some errant ancestor provenent from the German town Jerichow (Sachsen-Anhalt) first bore it (the area is known as "Jerichower Land" (I have found both Jews and non-Jews with the surname Jerichower)? The pass from /#"yæ Ri 'Xo veR#/ to /#'yæR Xo veR#/ would result from a not unusual syncopation. But, alas, all we know is that my great grandfather and his siblings were born in Iasi; their father's place of birth is lost to posterity, as are his ancestors and their origins.

Date: Wed, 22 May 2002 04:04 -0400 
From: Gloria Ascher <gascher @ tufts.edu> 
Subject: Requesting Judeo-Spanish curricular info for UNESCO conference

Dear Colleagues, I will be participating in the conference on Ladino (Judeo-Spanish) sponsored by UNESCO to be held in Paris June 17-18, 2002. As one of several representatives of the U.S., I have been asked to speak on the teaching of Judeo-Spanish (Ladino) language and culture in the U.S. In order to present the most accurate, up-to-date, and comprehensive report possible, I am asking you for relevant information: programs, courses (on Judeo-Spanish language, history, music, etc.), chairs, new developoments, and any other activities at your institution. Please send your information in time to reach me by Friday, June 7, before my departure, by e-mail or directly to my home: 43 Lafayette St., Quincy, MA 02169 (phone: 617-773-6715). Also, tell me if you are also planning to attend the conference. Munchas grasias - thank you very much in advance for your prompt response. Regards, Gloria

June 2002

Date: Tue, 04 Jun 2002 17:32 -0500 
From: john zemke <zemkej @ missouri.edu> 
Subject: Ladino books

Dear readers of Jewish-languages: The Hebrew Bibliography Project, located in the Jewish National and University Library, is completing its bibliographical listing or catalogue of books in Ladino, not only in the JNUL but also in other libraries. To date they have listed 2500 titles, three times and more than the number in previous bibliographies. If you know of libraries in the US or Europe that have collections of books in Ladino, other than the obvious ones, Library of Congress, Jewish Theological Seminary, Hebrew Union College, Harvard, Es Haim, etc., please notify <zemkej @ missouri.edu>. Thank you. Best regards, John Zemke

Date: Thu, 6 Jun 2002 11:57 -0700 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Judeo-Romance question

Here is a message from Stephane Goyette, a scholar of language contact and pidgins and creoles. Please respond directly to him at <stephane @ goyette.com>. ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Wed, 05 Jun 2002 22:36:06 -0700 (PDT) From: stephane @ goyette.com I'm interested in Romance languages/dialects (especially their morphosyntax) which have evolved in a context where said language/dialect was widely acquired and used as a second language by native speakers of non-Romance languages --importantly, in a social and demographic setting where the interlanguage of such learners would significantly influence the evolution of the language/dialect and contribute to its differentiation from sister languages/dialects not used as a second language. I was wondering whether any Judeo-Romance language would qualify. The closest I've come to finding something on the subject is Ralph Penny's discussion of the role played by dialect contact in the genesis of Judeo-Spanish in his VARIATION AND CHANGE IN SPANISH --except that he's looking at the role played by Romance speakers acquiring Castilian: I'd like something similar involving speakers of non-Romance languages. Nothing in Wexler's bibliography of Judeo-Romance linguistics seems to fit. Thank you all in advance for whatever answers you may supply. Stephane Goyette.

Date: Fri, 7 Jun 2002 13:01 -0400 
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu> 
Subject: Re: Azharot and Ketuboth

In addition, there is a modern Italian translation (by Menahem Emanuele Artom) in: Machazor di rito italiano : secondo gli usi di tutte le Comunità / testo riveduto, tradotto e annotato da Menachem Emanuele Artom ; presentzione di Elio Toaff. Roma : Carucci, 1988; vol. 2, p. 1422-1461. The text is that which is used by the Minhag Roma (the Italian custom was to read them both on Shavu'ot as well as on the Sabbath preceding the holiday). This is the Ibn Gabirol version (see also: Mahazor kol ha-shanah kefi minhag ... Italiyani : ... ve-nosaf ... mavo le-mahazor bene Roma / asher hiber Shemu'el David Lutsato ..., Livorno, Belforte, 1855/6; v. 1, p. 140b-146a). Best regards, Seth Jerchower ************************************************* Seth Jerchower Public Services Librarian Center for Judaic Studies University of Pennsylvania 420 Walnut Street Philadelphia, PA 19106 Tel: (215) 238-1290, ext. 203 Fax: (215) 238-1540 sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu http://www.library.upenn.edu/cjs/ *************************************************

Date: Sun, 16 Jun 2002 15:25 -0400 
From: Erez Levon <eml246 @ nyu.edu> 
Subject: Introduction

Hello: I have just joined the Jewish Languages List and I am writing this message to introduce myself to the other list subscribers. My name is Erez Levon and I am a third year doctoral student in Linguistics at NYU. To date, my work has focused on the syntax of Modern Israeli Hebrew (specifically the syntax of interrogation) as well as Language and Identity construction, with specific reference to gender and sexuality in the United States and England. I've recently become interested in the linguistic practice of Reform Jews in the United States, specifically the ways in which nationalistic/Zionistic ties to Israel are linguistically negotiated and performed. I am interested in going through the literature on the American Orthodox community and examining whether similar linguistic phenomena exist (or not) in the Reform movement, with a specific eye to the discussion of "mosaic" and "conflicted/dual" identities of Reform American Jews. About myself, I was born in Israel to Israeli parents, and moved with my family to the United States (Los Angeles) when I was six. I suppose my interest in this topic arises from my own somewhat conflicted/dual identification with both Israel and the US. I was not raised in the Reform movement, rather we went to Chabad when I was young, though I know teach Religious School at two Reform synagogues in New York. I was very happy to find out about this list, and I look forward to the resources that I am sure it will offer. Best regards, Erez Erez Levon NYU Linguistics 719 Broadway Fifth Floor NY NY 10003 tel: 212 998 7950 email: EML246 @ nyu.edu The limits of my language are the limits of my world. - Wittgenstein

Date: Wed, 26 Jun 2002 06:23 -0700 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: In search of a publication (fwd)

If anyone has information about this publication, please respond directly to Tanya Brant <Tanya.Brant @ Blackwell.com>. ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Tue, 25 Jun 2002 14:26:24 -0400 From: "Brant, Tanya" <Tanya.Brant @ Blackwell.com> Subject: Publication We are trying to purchase the publication Judeo-Yemenite Studies: Proceedings of the Second Internatonal Congress by Ephraim Isaac. Is it available through you or do you know who is selling it? Thank you Tanya Brant Blackwells Book Services

Date: Thu, 27 Jun 2002 21:41 +0200 
From: Leonard Prager <lprager @ research.haifa.ac.il> 
Subject: Fw: SEGEL-PLUS: Reviving Aramaic as a spoken language

John Myhill <John @ research.haifa.ac.il> ----- Original Message ----- From: John Myhill To: segel-plus@research.haifa.ac.il Sent: Thursday, June 27, 2002 8:52 AM Subject: SEGEL-PLUS: Reviving Aramaic as a spoken language Dear segel-plus readers, I am writing this because I would like to know if any of you have suggestions on how to approach the Israeli government with a project I am working on. The project is to revive Aramaic as the spoken language of the Maronite community in Israel (eventually replacing Arabic), with the ultimate goal being for this to spread to other Middle Eastern Christians here and in other countries. There are about 8,000 Maronites in Israel, and preliminary research has suggested that they are quite interested in such a project. I have also been in contact with Maronite intellectuals overseas, including trained linguists, and they are very enthusiastic about such a project. As a linguist, I can also say that Israel is the best place to start this project, because Israeli society encourages the maintenance of relatively small communities speaking distinctive languages (as long as they aren't Jewish!), as can be seen by the categorical maintenance of Armenian by the 5,000 Israeli Armenians and the categorical maintenance of Circassian by the 3,000 Israeli Circassians. Additionally, because the Israeli Maronites know Hebrew, and because Hebrew and Aramaic are such closely related languages (they are both Northwest Semitic, and much closer to each other than either are to Arabic, which is a South Semitic language), learning Aramaic will be relatively easy for them. Aramaic is the ancestral language of all of the Christians of the area which is now Israel, Lebanon, Syria, and Iraq (Maronites switched to speaking Arabic about 500 years ago). A number of these groups, including the Maronites (numbering about 2 million worldwide, although there may be more) and the Assyrians/Chaldeans (numbering about 3 million), have kept Aramaic (also known as Syriac in this guise) as their sacred language. These people generally do not consider themselves to be `Arabs', in spite of the fact that they speak Arabic as their everyday language (in exactly the same way that Arabic-speaking Jews do not consider themselves to be `Arabs'), and many of them are very sympathetic to Israel. Their problem is that the world considers them to be `Arabs', because Arabic identity is defined in terms of spoken language. It is therefore in their interest to switch away from Arabic to Aramaic as their spoken language. Israel's perceived isolation in the Middle East is a direct result of the fact that, of the various Middle Eastern languages, only Hebrew and Arabic have been turned into modern spoken+written languages, while languages of other groups-Aramaic, Coptic, Kurdish, Berber, etc.-were not. Since, as Benedict Anderson among others has shown, language has been the key to modern nationalism, this has meant that these other groups have been perceived as not `real peoples'. It is therefore in Israel's interest to help to develop these languages. Aramaic is also the ancestral language of the Arabic-speaking Greek Orthodox and Catholics (who constitute the overwhelming majority of Israel's `Christian Arabs', although outside of Israel (and Syria) they constitute a small minority of Arabic-speaking Christians). However, since they have adopted a European religious affiliation and sacred language (Greek or Latin) rather than Aramaic, they are basically not aware of their historical ties to Aramaic. This is why they consider themselves to be `Arabs', unlike other Middle Eastern Christians. These people are NOT at the moment interested in reviving Aramaic. They are, however, enormously confused about their own identity at the moment, and since I teach 30 or 40 of them a year in my department, I will be able to find individual members of their community who might be interested in participating in an effort to revive Aramaic (I found one last semester when I talked about this topic in my sociolinguistics class) and eventually the movement might be able to spread to their communities as well. The first step we are planning is to open Aramaic-speaking gans in the three relatively large Maronite communities of Haifa, Nazareth, and Jish (near Tsfat); we are more or less going to be following the method through which Hebrew was revived, by emphasizing teaching the language to young children, but we are going to start with preschool rather than grade school (in the case of Hebrew, even though Hebrew was first introduced in grade school in the 1880s, it was actually only when Hebrew was brought into the kindergartens in the 1890s that the language was really revived). This will involve teaching Aramaic to the ganenot. Maronites pray in Aramaic every week (and almost all of them go to church every week), so they have a lot of contact with the language, but basically they have just memorized a lot of prayers, so they have emotional ties to the language but little practical knowledge (except for a few individuals). On the other hand, since they will only need to speak the language to children who are 3, 4, or 5-years-old, they will not need a very high level of knowledge of the language. Eventually, Aramaic will be introduced into grade schools as well, ultimately replacing Arabic. There are other aspects of the project which I can tell any of you who are interested. In order to do this, we are going to need the cooperation and perhaps financial assistance of the government. At the very least, we will need to arrange shabbatons for the ganenot to study Aramaic, maybe out of sequence with their normal shabbatons. And we will need to pay someone to teach Aramaic to the ganenot (it shouldn't be a probably to find someone to do this; there are plenty more Aramaicists in the country than there are good jobs for them today). I would like to know if any of you can suggest anyone in the government, or anyone with government contacts, who I might talk to about this project. It would seem to me that this is something which the Israeli government should be very interested in; it is a way to begin to present the Middle East as a more truly multicultural place (not just Arabs and Jews), without starting a war to establish another non-Arab country. I would very much appreciate any help you might be able to give. Thanks, John Myhill

Date: Thu, 27 Jun 2002 17:04 -0400 
From: George Jochnowitz <jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu> 
Subject: Re: SEGEL-PLUS: Reviving Aramaic as a spoken language

Dear friends, We know that Hebrew has become a native language. Modern Hebrew has the basic vocabulary and morphology of the ancient language. Its vocabulary is filled with loan words and loan translations, but this is true of very many languages. Its phonology is different from what existed two or three millennia ago, but had the language developed through the years, the changes would have been much more drastic. Yet although we have the evidence of the rebirth of Hebrew as a first language, we should not assume that a language without native speakers can be revived. Languages are very hard to learn. Hebrew was an exception. The motivation of its speakers was very high. Hebrew had been honored and studied through the centuries. There was a need for a common language that belonged to all Jews and belonged to them equally. Most Maronites do not especially love or honor Aramaic, nor are they likely to have studied it. It is not the language of their scriptures or their prayers. An extraodrdinary degree of motivation is necessary to start speaking a language one doesn't know very well every day and in every situation. If the example of Hebrew didn't exist, we would say that a language without native speakers cannot acquire them. Since Hebrew exists, we know that such a thing can happen. Nevertheless, it remains extremely unlikely. George Jochnowitz

Date: Thu, 27 Jun 2002 22:55 +0100 
From: Ghil`ad ZUCKERMANN <gz208 @ cam.ac.uk> 
Subject: Re: SEGEL-PLUS: Reviving Aramaic as a spoken language

George, thank you for your message; I agree with your punchline. I only have a small footnote: > Its phonology is different from what existed two or three millennia ago, > but had the language developed through the years, the changes would have > been much more drastic. I am not sure about it. One might think that you are suggesting that the phonology of ISRAELI only developed from that of HEBREW. However, the phonetic/phonological system of ISRAELI is not simply a result of internal convergence and divergence within HEBREW (as has been suggested by some excellent linguisticians)... In my hybridizational view, both HEBREW and YIDDISH acted as PRIMARY CONTRIBUTORS for ISRAELI. Hence the mosaic - rather than merely Mosaic - nature of this lovely SEMITIC & Indo-European language (ISRAELI, aka Ivrit). Warm wishes, Ghil`ad gz208 @ cam.ac.uk www.zuckermann.org

Date: Fri, 28 Jun 2002 09:07 -0400 
From: Weiser, Jonathan M. <jweiser @ morrisjames.com> 
Subject: Re: SEGEL-PLUS: Reviving Aramaic as a spoken language

I agree with Ghil'ad as to phonology AND as to syntax. I would, however, give more deference to other Indo-European languages as well as to Yiddish as being "primary" contributors, particularly with respect to syntax. One can speak of a sort of amalgamated European syntax and even phonology as these relate to overall European influence on non-European languages. The participation of scholars and of those generally familiar with Hebrew render the Israeli experience phenomenologically distinct from, say, pidgins and creoles that develop around trade and colononization.

Date: Fri, 28 Jun 2002 18:25 +0200 
From: Gideon Goldenberg <msgidgol @ mscc.huji.ac.il> 
Subject: Re: SEGEL-PLUS: Reviving Aramaic as a spoken language

Maybe better not to involve scholars familiar with Hebrew; it may spoil ideological purity.

July 2002

Date: Tue, 9 Jul 2002 10:10 -0700 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: endangered languages

This message is forwarded from the Language and Culture list. -Sarah ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Today's Topics: 1. The Endangered Languages Documentation Programme (info @ eldp.soas.ac.uk) Please find below outline details of a new research programme for the documentation of Endangered Languages. Initial announcement The Endangered Languages Documentation Programme A. A new research programme for the documentation of endangered languages. There is a very strong prospect that a private foundation will initiate a programme of grants to support the documentation of endangered languages, and appoint the School of Oriental & African Studies, London University [SOAS] to administer the scheme. The prospective Invitation to Apply, which is likely to be disseminated in late August, will contain full guidelines and contact details for any further inquiries. In the interim, no further details will be made available and prospective applicants are requested to avoid contacting SOAS with inquiries. The purpose of this announcement is to indicate the rationale of the putative programme and enable potential applicants to begin considering the details of their possible proposals. B. Rationale. The rationale of such a programme will be familiar to potential applicants: the pace at which languages are becoming extinct is increasing throughout the world. Furthermore, since only about one-third of the world's languages have literate traditions, the vast majority of languages which die will leave no substantial record of themselves, or the cultural traditions that they have sustained. Quite apart from the loss of individual cultural expressions, this process reflects a grave diminution in human and cultural diversity and a loss of the knowledge on which they are based and which they embody. The objective of the proposed programme would be twofold: to encourage the development of linguistic fieldwork in endangered languages, especially by younger scholars with a grounding in linguistic theory, who will thereby also be provided with support between basic graduate work and the assumption of university positions; and to support the documentation of as many threatened languages as possible, focused on where the danger of extinction is greatest, facilitating the preservation of culture and knowledge, and creating repositories of data for the linguistic and social sciences, and of course for indigenous communities. Such documentation should, therefore, have regard not only to the formal content and structure of languages, but also to the varied social and cultural contexts within which languages are used. In addition to the intellectual quality of applications, principal grounds for support will be the degree of endangerment and the urgency of the issues. C. Applications. Applications will be invited from researchers - who might include suitably qualified research students or postdoctoral candidate, as well as senior and established academics - with qualifications in and, ideally, experience of field linguistics. It is anticipated that all applicants will have, or will have developed in advance of funding, a formal link with (preferably an established position in) a university or comparable research institution. The core of the programme will probably be grants to support more or less elaborate projects for the documentation of individual or closely related endangered languages, involving one or more researchers and receiving support for up to three or, in exceptional circumstances four, years. However, individuals (including suitably qualified research students and postdoctoral fellows) may apply for grants. In the first instance applicants will be expected to submit a relatively brief Summary Proposal Form. These will be assessed and those, which appear to conform to the programme's expectations as to importance and quality, will be invited to submit a more detailed application. It is anticipated that in this first 'round' the date for submission of Summary Proposals will be mid-October 2002; invitations to submit detailed applications will be despatched in late November 2002; and the closing date for detailed applications will be early January 2003. Detailed applications will have to conform to a variety of standards (including ethical and technical standards), which will be specified in the formal Invitation to Apply some time in late August. Meanwhile, potential applicants are requested not to contact SOAS.

Date: Fri, 19 Jul 2002 11:00 -0700 
From: Yona Sabar <sabar @ humnet.ucla.edu> 
Subject: [blank]

Dear Colleagues, Some of you may be interested in the following recent/forthcoming publications: 1) Y. Sabar, "Mah Nishtannah: A Comparative Study of Two Translations of the Passover Haggadah into Jewish Aramaic" (in Hebrew), Leshonénu 64/1-2 (2002), pp. 73-91; English summary, pp. III-IV. It incudes some comparative study of the Haggadah translations in other Jewish languages (Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Spanish, Yiddish, etc.). 2) Idem, A Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dictionary (Based on old and new manuscripts, oral and written bible translations, folkloric texts, and diverse spoken registers, with an introduction to grammar and semantics, and an index of Talmudic words which have reflexes in Jewish Neo-Aramaic), Harrasovitz Verlag, Semitica Viva vol. 28, expected August 2002. Best wishes and shabbat shalom to all, Yona Sabar

August 2002

Date: Sun, 4 Aug 2002 07:50 -0700 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Endangered languages funding

You might be interested in this Press Release sent to Linguist List: -Sarah To help explore and record linguistic diversity across the globe, a British foundation has provided £20,000,000 over ten years to create an international scholarly program to study endangered languages. See more at: http://linguistlist.org/issues/13/13-2026.html 1) From: info @ eldp.soas.ac.uk Subject: Endangered Languages Project

Date: Thu, 8 Aug 2002 23:05 +0200 
From: Mark <admin @ asarian-host.net> 
Subject: Odes of Solomon

Dear people, My name is Mark Kramer. I am a novice on Jewish languages, and a newbie on this list. My academic affiliation is with Theology, and Koine Greek in particular. Recent research into Syriac/Neo-Aramaic texts have sparked my interest in Jewish langueses as well, although I am still learning the basics there. Ny question is as follows. In the Odes of Solomon, found in Syriac "origin" (possibly translated from Greek), I found an interesting passage in Ode 41, "The Messiah in truth is one." Because I am a novice in the field of Syriac, my knowledge of this language does not suffice yet to determine whether this "oneness" is a oneness of person, or one of essence. My interest in this is related to John 10:30 ("My Father and I are one.") where the Greek neuter "hen" is used to denote a oneness of essence, not of person. Hence, my question whether the Syriac text makes it clear whether "one" in Ode 41:15 ("The Messiah in truth is one.") is a oneness in person, or refers to a oneness of essence. I would be most grateful if anyone had the answer, or would be willing to refer me to someone who might help me further. Much obliged, - Mark

Date: Mon, 19 Aug 2002 07:37 -0700 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Call for papers; AATSP- Sephardic Studies

Message from Dr. Nechama Kramer-Hellinx, 54 Ingram Street, Forest Hills NY 11375, USA Email: nechamakr @ worldnet.att.net Please respond directly to her. ----------------------------------------------------------------- > Dear colleagues, > > Next year the AATSP meeting will take place in Chicago. Sessions will > run 2-4 August 2003, at the Fairmont Chicago Hotel (a great location, > near Michigan Ave). Further details in the Sept. 2002 issue of Hispania, > > For your information, this year, the deadline that the AATSP set for > proposals has been changed drastically. Please note that proposals > should come to the chairperson by 15 October 2002. The Chairperson, in > turn, will have until 15 November 2002, to send the AATSP the completed > description of the session, lists of participants, title of > presentations and a list of needed Audio Visuals. Please make sure you > are a paid 2003 AATSP member. > > As a result we have but 2 months to receive your proposals. > > Please forward to interested parties. > ****************************** > SEPHARDIC STUDIES > > TOPIC: COVERSOS Y EXILIO: HISTORIA Y LITERATURA > > Languages of presentation: English, Spanish or Portuguese. > > Presenters may discuss and elaborate on any facet of exile in the life > and or the literature of the conversos: > > Exile as a theme in literature. > The effect of exile on the revival of Jewish communities. > The effect of exile on the life and literary works of the individual > converso. > Voluntary exile vs. forced exile. > Conversion or exile vs. conversion or death. > How did Iberian Expulsions (1492; 1496) and forced conversions (1497-98) > to Christianity influenced the formation of a new literary genre, that > of the Converso. > Literary representations of the Diaspora/Exile of the Iberian New > Chrisitians for more than three centuries (1492-1850). > > These are only some EXAMPLES, from many more you could come up with. > > Please send abstracts to > Dr. Nechama Kramer-Hellinx, 54 Ingram Street, Forest Hills NY 11375, USA > > Email: nechamakr @ worldnet.att.net > Fax: 1-718-793 3385 > Tel: 1-718- 793 3384 > > Thanks, Gracias, Obrigada > > Nechama

Date: Mon, 19 Aug 2002 15:41 -0500 
From: Roz Drohobyczer <roz @ library.wustl.edu> 
Subject: Introduction

I was born in Istanbul and spent my childhood in the Jewish neighborhoods of Istanbul: Sishane, Kuledibi. I am the product of both my ethnic background (Sephardic Jew) and and my homeland Turkey. I immigrated to the United States in 1981. Since then I have lived in New Mexico, Ohio, Tennessee and Missouri. Currently I work as a Reference Assistant at the Washington University in St. Louis and I am in the process of completing a graduate degree in Library Science. I have been writing short stories in Judeo-Spanish about my childhood memories since 2000. Recently my short stories in Judeo-Espaniol became part of a very exciting bigger project, a collection of Judeo-Spanish stories and memoires. This Book edited by Dr. Gad Nassi is published in Istanbul this week and the Cervantes Institute in Istanbul gracefully agreed to promote or introduce this very exciting and rare work. It is rare because so few of of Judeo-Spanish speakers have undertaken such an endeavor. The editor Dr. gad Nassi, also a native of Istanbul, who has researched various topics about Sephardic Literature and Culture, this time along with his works, has compiled works of 35 other Sephardim from different backgrounds into his colletion and organized 9 illustrators to produce authentic illustrations for each work. I am as excited as the author not only because some of my short memoirs and illustrations are in the book, but also because it is such a unique contemporary work, all in Judeo-Spanish. I am sending an attachment that includes the picture of the book cover and purchasing information. The Book promotion will take place on November 13th, 2002 at the Cervantes Insitute in Istanbul and I will be glad to answer any questions and share any other information as it becomes available. Sincerely, Roz Kohen Drohobyczer.

Date: Mon, 19 Aug 2002 16:07 -0500 
From: Roz Drohobyczer <roz @ library.wustl.edu> 
Subject: Contemporary book in Judeo-Spanish

Title: EN TIERRAS AJENAS YO ME VO MURIR TEKSTOS KONTEMPORANOS EN DJUDEO-ESPANIOL Edited by Gad Nassi ISBN 975-428-226-9 In Judeo-Spanish. 560 pages. Close to 300 illustrations. Table of Contents Foreword by Moshe Shaul Introduction by Gad Nassi The Legend of a language by Gad Nassi. A survey on the history of the Judeo-Spanish language and its achievements. About Haketia by Moshe Shaul. Reflections about the Judeo-Spanish used in North Africa. Stories and Legends by 20 authors. 72 stories, legends and anecdotes chosen from Sephardic Folklore. Picked from previously published works or from collective memory orally transmitted from one generation to another. Illustrated by 8 artists. Memoirs by 19 authors. 38 memoirs of childhood or family loom. Illustrated by 5 artists. Meliselda, The Sabbatean Metamorphosis of a Medieval Romance by Gad Nassi. Study on the background of the romance of Meliselda and the factors that influenced its integration in the heritage of the Ottoman Jews. The fish Oki Oki an I by Asher Amado. Story relating the life of children who grow up in Israel and the Sephardic ancestry. Illustrated by Shira Borer. To purchase a copy: e-mail or fax to ISIS in Istanbul: isis @ turk.net Fax: +90 216 3218666 Tel: +90 216 3213851 ======================================== Roz Kohen Drohobyczer Reference Library Assistant 314.935.8179 (voice) Washington University Libraries 314.935.4919 (fax) Campus Box 1061 roz @ library.wustl.edu 1 Brookings Drive St. Louis, MO 63130 ========================================

Date: Thu, 29 Aug 2002 13:01 -0700 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: grants awarded for less commonly taught languages (fwd)

(Forwarded from Linguist List) Date: Tue, 27 Aug 2002 16:37:06 -0400 From: McGinnis, Scott <smcginnis @ nflc.org> Subject: NCOLCTL: Small Grant awards SMALL GRANTS AWARDED FOR LESS COMMONLY TAUGHT LANGUAGES The National Council of Organizations of Less Commonly Taught Languages (NCOLCTL) is pleased to announce the awarding of mini-grants to the following individuals and organizations: Sholem Berger, Yugntruf Youth for Yiddish First Colloquium of Teachers of the Yiddish Language and Culture Neil Bermel, University of Sheffield & Ilona Koranova, Charles University Electronic Materials for an Intermediate Czech Course Judy Chang, West Valley Chinese Language School Curriculum and Learning Material Development in Support of Cantonese Language Education William Comer, University of Kansas Expanding Language Choice: Promoting LCTLs at the University of Kansas Consortium of Teachers of Southeast Asian Languages (COTSEAL) National Teacher Development Program for Teachers of Southeast Asian Languages Masako O. Douglas, California State University, Long Beach Survey on Japanese Schools in the United States Lida Hola, Akcent International House Language School Teachers Manual for CZECH STEP BY STEP Norwegian Teachers and Researchers Association of North America (NORTANA) Norwegian Language Learning Framework Minjuan Wang and Mary Ann Lyman-Hager, San Diego State University The Development and Impact of Heritage Language Education: An Ethnographic Study of Chinese Language Schools in San Diego Yuanzhong Zhang, Miami-Dade Community College Exploring Community College Educators' Beliefs and Practices in Heritage Language Maintenance & Development in Developmental Learners While the purposes for which the grants will be used vary, the principal criterion for every award was its use for a project that promotes field building in the Less Commonly Taught Languages (LCTLs). All awardees have provided a significant personal and/or institutional contribution to the success of the proposed project. The grant recipients are required to submit a final report describing how the grant was used, the results of the project, and a copy of any product stemming from the project. Inquiries may be directed to the Council Executive Director, Scott McGinnis, at smcginnis @ nflc.org.

September 2002

Date: Fri, 6 Sep 2002 15:12 +0300 
From: Yohanan Friedmann <msyfried @ mscc.huji.ac.il> 
Subject: J. Blau, "A Handbook of Early Middle Arabic"

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem The Institute of Asian and African Studies The Max Schloessinger Memorial Foundation is pleased to announce the publication of "A Handbook of Early Middle Arabic" (260 pp.) by Joshua Blau In the present "Handbook of Early Middle Arabic", Professor Joshua Blau of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, the undisputed dean of the study of Middle Arabic, presents a reliable and up-to-date survey, comprehensive yet concise, of the whole field. The Handbook contains a grammatical outline of Middle Arabic structure, annotated examples of the main Middle Arabic varieties and a glossary of all words occurring in the book. An important feature of the book is the variety of texts presented. These cover (a) Muslim, (b) Christian and (c) Jewish Middle Arabic, each represented by typical or noteworthy examples, some of them published here for the first time. Particularly significant are the Jewish texts, Rabbanite and Karaite, which have been transmitted in different orthographical modes. Standard Judaeo-Arabic orthography is represented by samples from Saadia Gaon, Qirqisani and David b. Abraham al-Fasi. Linguistically more revealing are Judaeo-Arabic writings in the earlier phonetic orthography; these are exemplified in the Handbook by selected texts on papyrus, by specimens of a translation of Halakhot Pesuqot and a translation of the Biblical book of Proverbs. In the Appendix, two examples of vocalized Middle Arabic are given: one written in Coptic characters, the other a Judaeo-Arabic letter from the Cairo Geniza. Professor Blau's "Handbook" will enable all Arabists to gain immediate access to the world of Middle Arabic, guided in their journey by the leading authority in the field. On the one hand, scholars familiar only with the classical, literary tongue will be able to see in what directions the language subsequently developed; on the other hand, Arabic dialectologists will be afforded a valuable glimpse into the history of modern colloquial forms. The "Handbook..." will thus be a valuable tool for all who are concerned with the history of the Arabic tongue. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ORDER FORM The price of the volume is $47.00. Postage and handling: $2.00 for the first volume; $1.00 for each additional volume. Individual members of the association "From Jahiliyya to Islam" pay $33 + $2.00 (members' price is valid for direct sales only, not through booksellers). Cheques payable to the Schloessinger Memorial Foundation should be sent to the Director of Publications, The Max Schloessinger Memorial Foundation, Institute of Asian and African Studies, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Please note that we cannot accept Eurocheques or credit cards, but personal and institutional cheques in your currency are acceptable. Inquiries: E-mail: msjsai @ pluto.mscc.huji.ac.il / Fax: +972-2-588-3658 Please send ______ copies of A Handbook of Early Middle Arabic Name: ____________________________________ Address: ________________________________________________ ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam The Max Schloessinger Memorial Foundation The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Jerusalem 91905, Israel Fax: +972-2-588-3658

Date: Sun, 8 Sep 2002 13:39 +0200 
From: Mark <admin @ asarian-host.net> 
Subject: "one"

Dear people, I have had some wonderful responses to my earlier inquiry about the Odes of Solomon. My thanks to you all! :) In my further investigation, I found that in Hebrew "ehad" denotes a compound of unity (Eg.: Deuteronomy 6:4, "Shema Yisrael, Adonai Eloheinu, Adonai ehad" = Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD.) and that a different word, yahid, is used to denote a uniqueness, a single-oneness. My question is, does a similar distinction exist in Syric? And if so, what is the Syriac equavalent of yahid? Much obliged, Rev. Mark Kramer

Date: Mon, 9 Sep 2002 10:20 -0400 
From: Paul Glasser <pglasser @ yivo.cjh.org> 
Subject: onfreg

A query to the members: For a paper on the process by which neologisms are accepted into a language, I would like some advice on bibliography related to the coining of new words in modern Hebrew in pre-state Palestine. Thank you! / A dank! / Todah! A ksive vekhsime toyve, P.(H.)G. Dr. Paul (Hershl) Glasser Associate Dean, Max Weinreich Center Senior Research Associate, Yiddish Language 212-246-6080 X6139 (ph) 212-292-1892 (fax) mailto:pglasser @ yivo.cjh.org YIVO Institute for Jewish Research 15 West 16 Street New York, New York 10011 http://www.yivo.org

Date: Mon, 9 Sep 2002 20:46 -0400 
From: Elaine Rebecca Miller <forerm @ panther.gsu.edu> 
Subject: query on Sephardic script

Dear colleagues - I forward this message to the list, since I know many of you out there can answer this question more easily and accurately than I can. Please respond directly to Jeff Malka (his address is at the bottom). Many thanks. Elaine Miller Georgia State University Forwarded message: I have just finished a 400 page comprehensive book on Sephardic genealogy (http://www.avotaynu.com/books/sephardic.htm ) due to be published in 3 weeks by Avotaynu, a publishing house that specializes in books about the methodology of Jewish genealogy. Although the book already contains examples of text written in Sephardic script I would very much like to include a table showing the Hebrew alphabet in block letters along with the corresponding cursive Sephardic script letters as an aid for those who might wish to decipher it. Would you be in a position to provide such a table or point me in the direction of someone who might? Thank you. Jeff Malka <malkajef @ orthohelp.com>

Date: Mon, 9 Sep 2002 18:05 -0700 
From: DAVID G HIRSCH <dhirsch @ library.ucla.edu> 
Subject: Re: query on Sephardic script

As others might potentially be interested in this, I am posting to the whole list. The best table I know of is in a book called: A Guide to Reading and Writing Judezmo by David M. Bunis. It was published in 1975 in Brooklyn by Adelantre!, The Judezmo Society. It includes a table with Meruba (square Hebrew characters), Rashi script, and "Solitreo" or Sephardic cursive script. Unfortunately, not all Sephardic cursive script is uniform, but this is definitely a good place to start. David Hirsch Jewish and Middle Eastern Studies Bibligrapher UCLA

Date: Mon, 9 Sep 2002 18:42 -0700 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: shm- reduplication in Yiddish

There's a website that has a survey about shm- reduplication in American English: http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/dm/shm/ They say that this process is influenced by Yiddish but does not exist in Yiddish. I seem to remember hearing expressions like "Gelt, shmelt! Abi gezint" in Yiddish. Can anyone come up with actual examples from Yiddish literature, song, or film, preferably from Europe (in an early period)? If you do, I'll e-mail it to the creators of the website and they'll change their point about the development. Thanks, Sarah Bunin Benor Stanford University

Date: Tue, 10 Sep 2002 08:06 +0300 
From: Ora Schwarzwald <oschwarz @ mail.biu.ac.il> 
Subject: Re: onfreg

Shana Tova, There is a lot of material on the coining of new words efore 1948, in the publications of Vaad haLashon, later the Hebrew Language Academy. Jacob Fellman in his book on Eliezer Ben-Yehuda refer to it. Also, in Reuven Sivan's book on the Revival of Hebrew there is some reference to it. Most of the material is published in Hebrew except for the last two items that I mentioned. Gmar Hatima Tova, Ora =============================================== Prof. Ora R. Schwarzwald Hebrew and Semitic Languages Bar Ilan University Ramat Gan, ISRAEL 52900 Tel. 972-3-5325021 (home), 5318667 (office) FAX: 972-3-5324855 (home), 5351233 (faculty) E-mail: oschwarz @ mail.biu.ac.il http://faculty.biu.ac.il/~oschwarz http://www.biu.ac.il/JS/hb/oraheb.htm

Date: Tue, 10 Sep 2002 08:23 +0300 
From: Ora Schwarzwald <oschwarz @ mail.biu.ac.il> 
Subject: Re: query on Sephardic script

Bunis's book JUDEZMO is much more updated (Magnes 1989). Ora =============================================== Prof. Ora R. Schwarzwald Hebrew and Semitic Languages Bar Ilan University Ramat Gan, ISRAEL 52900 Tel. 972-3-5325021 (home), 5318667 (office) FAX: 972-3-5324855 (home), 5351233 (faculty) E-mail: oschwarz @ mail.biu.ac.il http://faculty.biu.ac.il/~oschwarz http://www.biu.ac.il/JS/hb/oraheb.htm

Date: Tue, 10 Sep 2002 16:24 -0400 
From: Hayim Sheynin <hsheynin @ gratz.edu> 
Subject: Re: shm- reduplication in Yiddish

Sarah: I heard also such expressions from Yiddish speaking people in Russia and Ukraine. I remember that they had a derogatory or diminishing, pejorative and deprecatory overtone, especially having in mind to reduce the importance of the person or concept. It is difficult to remember many exact words but they sound as komadir (commander) - shmomandir, brigadir (leader of brigade) - shmigadir, ministr (minister [member of cabinet]) - shminister, lerer (teacher) - shmerer, kantor (cantor, hazan) - shmantor, militsioner (policeman) - shmilitsioner, filosofiya (philosophy) - shmilosofiya, but also leder (lather) - shleder, fabrika (plant, factory) shmabrika, balaguleh (etym. Heb. Ba`al `agalah) - shmalagule. It was used also with private names Mara - (deminutive) Marka - Shmarka, Mira (from Miriam) - (diminutive) Mirka - Shmirka. Many of the Yiddish derogatory forms were formed in association with local Slavic nouns (like Mark-Shmark), in Russian smorkat' - blow one's nose [it means the person is snotty, i.e. not adult, childish or not important], the Jews frequently pronounced shmorkat' instead smorkat'. In addition I can note, that in the language of Odessa Jews there were many regular words starting from shm- (like shmary - hookers), and it is very difficult to go back to their original form <maybe *khmary> It is interesting that some languages (particularly Turkic family) use similar [but not identic] pattern for formation of Plural. For example in Kazakh language: kulak (rich nomadic Kazakh) - mulak (many rich nomadic Kazakhs). It is impossible to mention all the aspects and connection of the reduplication shm-, but it was very productive pattern. Hayim. ======== Dr. Hayim Y. Sheynin Adjunct Professor of Jewish Literature Head of Reference Services Tuttleman Library of Gratz College 7605 Old York Rd. Melrose Park, PA 19027 tel. 215 635-7300, ext. 161 fax: 215 635-7320 e-mail: hsheynin @ gratz.edu

Date: Tue, 10 Sep 2002 16:00 -0700 
From: Yona Sabar <sabar @ humnet.ucla.edu> Subject: Re: shm- reduplication in Yiddish

Dear Sarah and All, shana Tova The most famous use was by David Ben-Gurion who wanted to belittle the importance of the UN (=um - acronym in Hebrew) by saying: um, shmum (I couldn't care less about UN). Similar phenomenon found in Turkish, Persian, Judeo-Spanish, Kurdish and Jewish Neo-Aramaic. Theoretically, any noun can be used with its m-'doublet' (=the real noun but with its first consonant replaced with m-) to indicate 'all kinds of, and the like', with some belittling, e.g., julle-mulle 'clothes, rags'; p?lda-m?lda 'hair residue, and the like'; p¥rakat-m¥rakat 'old ladies, and the like'; n?åqa uman?øqe 'kissing and the like". kol Tuv Yona Sabar

Date: Wed, 11 Sep 2002 03:08 EDT 
From: Mihalevy @ aol.com 
Subject: Kein Thema

Dear Reduplicationists, repetition and reduplication is very productive in Balkan Spanish (Judezmo), Turkish and all Balkan languages. Some examples for partial reduplication in Balkan Spanish: kitab (book), kitab-mitab (books and such) çocuk (child), çocul-mocuk (children and the like) fystik (pistachio), fystik-mystik (pistachio and the like) For more examples see my (forthcoming) study Repetition and Reduplication in Balkan Spanish For further information: Thorsten Mau: Form und Funktion sprachlicher Wiederholungen (Form and Function of linguistic repetition), PhD, Hamburg 2000, University of Hamburg Best and shana tova alegre i dulse, Michael Halévy

Date: Wed, 11 Sep 2002 13:54 -0400 
From: Hayim Sheynin <hsheynin @ gratz.edu> 
Subject: Re: Ein Thema: von shm- bis Plural in Turkic

Dear Michael: The sample you give from Balkan Judesmo is clearly influenced by Turkish. The sample I gave from Kazakh should be also formulated kulak-mulak (kulaks [and such]). I can add also kary-mary (the readers of Qoran [and such]), wazir-mazir (ministers [and such]), khardj-mardj (expences and such). Hayim ======= Dr. Hayim Y. Sheynin Adjunct Professor of Jewish Literature Head of Reference Services Tuttleman Library of Gratz College 7605 Old York Rd. Melrose Park, PA 19027 tel. 215 635-7300, ext. 161 fax: 215 635-7320 e-mail: hsheynin @ gratz.edu

Date: Wed, 11 Sep 2002 13:59 -0700 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Re: shm- reduplication in Yiddish (fwd)

from Norman Stillman: ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Wed, 11 Sep 2002 14:07:23 -0500 From: Norman A. Stillman <nstillman@ou.edu> To: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> Subject: Re: shm- reduplication in Yiddish Dear Colleagues, Reduplication and rhyming are fairly common in Moroccan Judeo-Arabic as well. See the examples in my paper "La rime dans le langage arabe des Juifs de Sefrou," in Relations judéo-musulmanes au Maroc: perceptions et réalités, dirigé par Michel Abitbol (Editions Stavit: Paris, 1997), 97-104. Sincerely, Noam Stillman

Date: Sun, 15 Sep 2002 13:20 -0700 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: from H-Judaic

This is a forward from H-Judaic. -Sarah From: Yona Sabar <sabar @ humnet.ucla.edu> Subject: NEW BOOK: Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dictionary The study of Jewish languages is relatively young, and some Jewish languages, such as Jewish Neo-Aramaic, have hardly been studied. Therefore, I would like to inform interested scholars in Jewish studies of the publication of the following book: A Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dictionary, Based on old and new manuscripts, oral and written bible translations, folkloric texts, and diverse spoken registers, with an introduction to grammar and semantics, and an index of Talmudic words which have reflexes in Jewish Neo-Aramaic, by Yona Sabar, Wiesbaden (Harrassowitz , Semitica Viva #28), 8/2002. $33. -- Yona Sabar, Professor of Hebrew and Aramaic Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1511

Date: Tue, 17 Sep 2002 11:20 -0700 
From: Thamar Gindin <thmrgndn @ yahoo.com> 
Subject: Hebrew component

Dear Colleagues, I have a few questions and would like to start a discussion about some problems of the Hebrew component. But first let me introduce myself in one paragraph, as I didn't do it when I joined the list: I am a research student in the Linguistics dept. in the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. My main interest is dead Iranian languages. I'm writing my dissertation about the language of the Early Judaeo-Persian Tafsir of Ezekiel (11th century), with Prof. Shaul Shaked as my supervisor. The MA portion of my direct doctoral program dealt with a dialect spoken by the Jews of the northern neighborhood of Yazd, Iran. Now to the Hebrew component Can you recommend any literature about the Hebrew component in general? (while we're at it, Is there any literature about the language of Bible translations in general?) The text I am currently working on is an exegetical text in Early Judaeo-Persian (EJP). Theis genre naturally has lots and lots and lots of Hebrew words and expressions, but I feel that not everything qualifies as a Hebrew _component_. Some of it is just Hebrew. For example, before translating each verse, the first few words of the Hebrew verse are quoted. I feel this is Hebrew, not EJP. When the author wants to comment on part of the verse, he says: "and saying XX", or "by X he means" and then his commentary. That's also pure Hebrew in my opinion. And so are single words that are quoted as examples of a certain structure in grammatical discussions. But how about quotes that the commentator brings to make a point? These quotes begin with "as he said" and then a Hebrew verse. Is that pure Hebrew or a Hebrew component of EJP? I tend to take it as part of the Hebrew component, because it's the meaning that counts, while in "pure Hebrew" it's the Hebrew that counts. But then how would you classify the following: "this which he said here, SIM PANEIXA DEREX TEIMANA (Ez. 21:2), its interpretation is SIM PANEIXA EL YERUSHALAYIM (Ez.21:7)"? And single words that are taken directly from the text in expressions like "he likens them to GEFEN" (I take this as a part of the Hebrew component, but it can be argued that this is a quote like any other)? Is there any standard for classification of a word or expression as "Hebrew component"? Waiting to read your opinions, Thamar.

Date: Wed, 18 Sep 2002 12:06 -0500 
From: Roz Drohobyczer <roz @ library.wustl.edu> 
Subject: Book in Judeo-Spanish

Dear Friends, The Judeo-Spanish Anthology "En Tierras Ajenas Yo Me vo Murir" by Gad Nassi has been published in Istanbul by ISIS. Pleas visit the web site: ======================================== http://www.missouri.edu/~rd4b9/livro.htm ======================================== The web site includes content and order information and other related valuable links. There will be a book presentation on Nov. 13th at the Cervantes Institute in Istanbul. Thank you for your interest. ======================================== Roz Kohen Drohobyczer Reference Library Assistant 314.935.8179 (voice) Washington University Libraries 314.935.4919 (fax) Campus Box 1061 roz @ library.wustl.edu 1 Brookings Drive St. Louis, MO 63130 ========================================

Date: Wed, 18 Sep 2002 14:19 -0700 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Hebrew component

Thamar- this is an important issue for the study of Jewish languages. There has already been some work on it, but we could use an even more nuanced understanding of the relation between Hebrew and Jewish languages. It might be useful to look at Max Weinreich's distinction between the Whole Hebrew Element and the Merged Hebrew Element in: Weinreich, M. 1980. History of the Yiddish Language. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Also, a few conference proceedings might be helpful: Misgav Yerushalayim's conference that focused on bible translation one year (I can get the exact reference if you want), and this one: Morag, S. et al. (eds.). 1999. Vena Hebraica in Judaeorum Linguis: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on the Hebrew and Aramaic Elements in Jewish Languages. Milan: Centro Studi Camito-Semitici di Milano. See also Joshua Fishman's article in: Fishman, J. A. (ed.). 1985. Readings in the Sociology of Jewish Languages. Leiden: Brill. where he discusses the sociological situation of diglossia between Hebrew and Jewish languages. I look forward to hearing other people's responses to this issue. -Sarah Bunin Benor

Date: Wed, 18 Sep 2002 22:22 -0400 
From: George Jochnowitz <jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu> 
Subject: Thamar's question

Haverim, Judeo-Romance languages, and perhaps Jewish languages in general, exist in two different shapes. There are translation-liturgical languages with almost no Hebrew component. In Alan Freedman's book _Italian Texts in Hebrew Characters_, his title doesn't even recognize the language as Jewish (see my review in _Romance Philology_ November 1974). Similarly, Susan Milner Silberstein's 1973 dissertation is entitled _The Provencal Esther Poem Written in Hebrew Characters ..._. Luisa Cuomo's study of different texts of the book of Jonah, _Una traduzione giudeo-romansca del libro di Giona_, points out that a language used only for translation can nevertheless develop and grow (see my review in _Romance Philology_ February 1995). Modern spoken Judeo-Italian is filled with words of Hebrew origin, often used to discuss emotionally charged or taboo subjects. See my "Judeo-Italian Lexical Items Collected by Zalman Yovely." _Bono Homini Donum: Essays in Historical Linguistics in Memory of J. Alexander Kerns_. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1981, pp. 143-57; and also "Religion and Taboo in Lason Akodesh (Judeo-Piedmontese)." _International Journal of the Sociology of Language_, 30 (1981), 106-17. It would be interesting to see whether this difference between older translation languages and more recent spoken languages is found in all Jewish languages. George

Date: Thu, 19 Sep 2002 10:53 -0400 
From: Hayim Sheynin <hsheynin @ gratz.edu> 
Subject: Re: Thamar's question

Dear George: You most probably know that distinction between older translation languages and more recent spoken languages is found in Ladino up to such degree that some scholars even recognize them as different languages, thus "calque language" for older Ladino and "judeo-espagnol" for modern Ladino in Haim Vidal Sephiha's and "Ladino" and "Judezmo" correspondingly in David M. Bunis's terms. Sephiha even goes further separating the language of judeo-spanish press of the second part of the 19th century as "judeo-fragnol." Another subject. Despite all the efforts of the Western scholars to attach to Ladino names of self-appellations like Judezmo the mass of Jewish people still calls it Ladino whichever period of the language meant. From my point I do not see any necessity to go to self-appellations, compare: German name for German language Deutsch. Other nations call it German, Aleman, Tedesco, Nemetskii, etc. Finnish name for their language is Suomi. All the nations are comfortable with "Finnish." The examples are too numerous to list. Hayim ======= Dr. Hayim Y. Sheynin Adjunct Professor of Jewish Literature Head of Reference Services Tuttleman Library of Gratz College 7605 Old York Rd. Melrose Park, PA 19027 tel. 215 635-7300, ext. 161 fax: 215 635-7320 e-mail: hsheynin @ gratz.edu

Date: Thu, 19 Sep 2002 18:54 -0700 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Assistant or Associate Professor of Hebrew Language

---------- Forwarded message ---------- From: pek <pek @ indiana.edu> The Borns Jewish Studies Program at Indiana University is searching to fill a tenure-track position at the Assistant or Associate Professor level in modern Hebrew language. Listed below is the vacancy notice that gives a detailed description of the position. Would it be possible to have this notice circulated to the Jewish-Language mailing list? If so, please let me know if there is any cost involved for this service? We are trying to circulate the vacancy notice as widely as possible and would appreciate your help in this regard. With my thanks and best wishes. Sincerely yours, Patricia Ek Assistant Director Borns Jewish Studies Program Indiana University Goodbody Hall 308 1011 East Third Street Bloomington, IN 47405-7005 (812)855-8358 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Assistant or Associate Professor of Hebrew Language The Robert A. and Sandra S. Borns Jewish Studies Program at Indiana University invites applications for a tenure-track appointment, to begin fall 2003, as Assistant or Associate Professor in modern Hebrew language. We seek a scholar, in any area of Hebrew studies, whose primary responsibilities will be the supervision and enhancement of our modern Hebrew program. Proficiency in modern Hebrew is required, as is a doctoral degree. A commitment to excellence in Hebrew language pedagogy is essential. Salary will be competitive and commensurate with experience. Applications received before November 1, 2002 will be assured of consideration. Submit a letter spelling out your teaching philosophy and goals, a C.V., and three letters of recommendation to: Professor Steven Weitzman, Borns Jewish Studies Program, Indiana University, Goodbody Hall 308, 1011 E. Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405-7005. IU is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer.

Date: Sat, 21 Sep 2002 13:02 -0400 
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu> 
Subject: Re: Hebrew component

Just to play devil's advocate, and stoke the flames of glottohades, I've been doing a considerable amount of research, and it seems that the terminology "Judaeo-Italian" (sic), as language name (noun or adj), may very well have been of German and English coinage: 1901 - G. Luzzatto, "Jüdisch-Italienisches I. Ein Frauendialog. Mantua. II. Sprichwörter un Redensarten." Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Jüdische Volkskunde 8 (1901), 156-157. 1904 - Jewish Encyclopedia (now online at http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com) in Richard Gottheil's translation of Lazzaro Belleli's article "Judaeo-Greek and Judaeo Italian", in referring to the the languages used by Jews of Corfu: "Although the Greek which is spoken and written by Jews in various parts of the Balkan Peninsula differs scarcely at all from that employed by the non-Jewish inhabitants, the term "Judæo-Greek" is convenient as distinguishing this dialect from that spoken by Jews elsewhere. The same is true of the term "Judæo-Italian," which refers hereonly to the Venetian and Apulian dialects." The only other place it is used is in Gottheil's own article under the heading "Dialects": "Strange to say, there are no traces of a Judæo-Italian dialect, even though some macaronic poems, as mentioned above, may be read as either Hebrew or Italian. The Jews in Italy very seldom wrote Italian in Hebrew characters; the "Tefillot Latine," Mordecai Dato's sermons, and Moses Catalano's poem being among the few cases in which they did (comp. "Rev. Et. Juives," x. 137). Italian literature began with Dante in the thirteenth century; and as it grew up under their very eyes, the Jews soon took part in its development, and did not mix the language with Hebrew (see Steinschneider, in "Monatsschrift," xlii. 116, 420; Güdemann, "Geschichte des Erziehungswesens . . . der Juden in Italien," p. 207)." Elsewhere in the same work, only "Italian" is used, even in reference to works in Hebrew characters (such as under "Haggadah" and "Bible Translations"). Steinschneider, throughout his ample literature on the "Letteratura italiana dei Giudei" only calls the languages of the texts either "Italian" or "Vulgar"; Zunz does as well in his earlier pieces. For most of the 19th century (I've been combing through "L'educatore isaelita" and "Vessillo Israelitico"), self-consciousness of an Italo-Romance varieties specific to the Jews is either, at best, limited, self-censured, or perhaps not even an issue. "Lingua italiana presso i giudei" (1884). Steinschneider 1884 p. 47, and "la conoscenza e l'uso dell'italiano presso i Giudei". (and cit. in Rijksuniversiteit te Leiden. Bibliotheek. Catalogus codicum Hebraeorum Bibliothecae Academiae Lugduno-Batavae, auctore M. Steinschneider. Lugduni-Batavorum, E.J. Brill, 1858. Appendix XVIII (Cod. Sc. 10 f.1), 404-405 (incipit by Moses of Rieti, to description pp. 350-355, with incipit [correct reading to "laudanno", p. 351; transcription pp. 351-353]). 1893: Vessillo Israelitico 41 (1893), 14: "voci dialettali e corrotte, in uso presso gli israeliti del Piemonte" (Sacerdote); p. 60, 61 "Libro di preghiere in vernacolo emiliano e caratteri ebraici", "libri stampati in lingua volgare e tipi ebraici"; p. 61 "gergo dei ghetti", p. 62 "del gergo parlato nei varii ghetti o giudecche d'Italia . come quelli d'Italia ne dettero la traduzione in vernacolo [????] e come oggi pure gli scrittori ebrei tedeschi si valgono allo stesso scopo del Jüden Deutsch" (Modona). It is not until 1909 that anything in Italian appears: Gergo giudaico-italiano (1909): p. 169 of Giuseppe Cammeo, "Studj dialettali." Vessillo Israelitico 57 (1909), 169-170 (et seg.) and finally, in the same year, it is noneother than Umberto Cassuto to use the term "giudeo-italiano" proper ("Parlata ebraica." Vessillo Israelitico 57 (1909): 254-260. p. 255): "Infatti, mentre è universalmente nota l'esistenza di un dialetto giudeo-tedesco, quasi nessuno sospetta oltr'alpe che gli ebrei italiani abbiano pure, o almeno abbiano avuto, non dirò un loro dialetto, ma almeno una loro parlata con peculiarie caratteri. Certo, praticamente l'importanza di essa, limitata all'uso quotidiano di poche migliaia di persone, è pressochè nulla di fronte a quella del giudeo-tedesco, il quale è parlato da milioni di individui che bene spesso non conoscono altra lingua, ed ha una propria letteratura, un proprio giornalismo. un proprio teatro, sì da assumere quasi l'importanza di una vera e propria lingua a sè . è pressochè nulla, se si vuole, anche a paragone di altri dialetti giudaici, del giudeo-spagnuolo ad esempio, che sono più o meno usati letterariamente; è vero tutto questo, ma dal punto di vista linguistico tanto vale il giudeo-tedesco, q u a n t o i l g i u d e o - i t a l i a n o , s e c o s ì v o g l i a m o c h i a m a r l o, giacchè di fronte alla scienza glottologica le varie forme del parlare umano hanno importanza di per sè e non per il numero di persone che le usano o per le forme d'arte in cui vengono adoperate. Piuttosto, una notevole differenza fra il giudeo-tedesco e il g i u d e o - i t a l i a n o, che ha valore anche per il riguardo scientifico, è che, mentre quello è tanto diverso dalla lingua tedesca da costituire un dialetto a sè stante, questo invece non è essenzialmente una cosa diversa dalla lingua d'Italia, o dai singoli dialetti delle varie provincie d'Italia . " ; p. 256: ". e r a n a t u r a l e c h e i l g e r g o g i u d e o - i t a l i a n o in breve volger di tempo sparisse." Regarding Hebrew in Jewish languages, it is also important to note WHICH Hebrew words amplify the lexicon of Lx with respect to Ly (derogatory Yiddish for male gentile "shegits", female "shiksa" < seqe.s, *siq.sah (please correct if the asterisk is unwarrented); in various JI varieties "/arel'/, /Nare'l/, /Nyare'l/, /Ngarel'le/" < 'arel, also translated as "chiuso / cluso" (one uncircumcised, therefore, "unopened", i.e. closed); however, the female is "goyà). Regional pronunciations and specific circulations aside, is the additional lexicon equivalent enough that one can assume a common substratus, or were specific items added sponaneously? Going back to circulations, what are the routes, and what are the vehicles (a common didactic vehicle, such as "Dabber Tov", Venice 1578, later reprinted as Or Lustro, and also the basis for a descendence of "Teitsch" glossaries; Elia Levita's works would also have found a similar circulation)? Venetian Jews did celebrate the "iorzai" for a deceased family member; Florentine Jews celebrated "hamisciòsceri" (t"u be-Shevat), presumedly, from an Ashkenazic "xa'mes Os'ri"; yet, evenings the "jodii no negri" would go to "l'aschivenu", and not moriv ("negro", as a derogatory, is another example: it is commonly assumed to be an Judeo-Iberian import; yet, in voting in the 16th century Roman Jewish community, a good lot was "bianco", a bad one "negro", based on the color of the stones cast; for the color alone, forms from "necro" are distributed perhaps more commonly than from "nero"; indeed, Petrarch uses "nero" for physical color, "nigro" for allegorical and moral color; I suspect that the implication of racial submeanings may be an anachronistic over-reading to a fair extent, especially in light of the system and lexicon of voting among Roman Jews - see: "Testimonianze dal vivo; la lingua degli ebrei romani negli atti dei notai ebrei, fra Cinque e Seicento." Rassegna Mensile di Israel 67.1-2 (2001): 373-410). Between the 13th and 17th centuries in particular, demographic, and therefore linguistic movements of European and Mediterranean Jews would render a high degree of "contaminatio" (excuse the philologic term). So the question stands: is there a common Hebrew lexical matrix? Mo'adim le-simha, Seth

Date: Sun, 22 Sep 2002 20:55 +0200 
From: Mark <admin @ asarian-host.net> 
Subject: Re: Odes of Solomon (fwd)

> ----- Original Message ----- > Sent: Friday, August 09, 2002 7:51 AM > Subject: Odes of Solomon (fwd) > > Dear Mark; > > In the Syriac text of the 'Odes Solomon' (41, 15) is written: had 'one', > number one. I check Syriac dictionaries and you can only translate as > 'one' (number 1). For 'oneness of essence' you would need in Syriac the > expression 'hadanya' (unicus, singularis). Dear Shifra, Thank you very much for your reply. It is highly appreciated. Please, do not regard my additional question as being argumentative; I am really speaking from an ignorance on the matter. :) The passage in question was; "The Messiah in truth is one" (Ode 41:15). meshicha ba-shrarara chad hu The anointed in truth one he And I tried to determine whether it can be correlated to: "My Father and I are one" (John 10:30). Where the Greek neuter "hen" is used to denote a oneness of essence. So, am I reading you correctly, that if the Odist meant to express the same Johannine thought, he would have written: "meshicha ba-shrarara chadanya hu"? The reason I ask, is that I have received several responses on this list which told me that in all the languages of Aramaic branch "had" /het-dalet/ or "hada" means one (Hebrew ehad, Arabic wahid/had) in all possible meanings. My own investigation has pretty much revealed the same; that (e)chad can be used to express a numeral as well as a 'compound unity'. For instance, echad is what Moses uses when he says, "And they will become one [echad] flesh" (Genesis 2:24). And echad is the same word God uses when he tells Ezekiel: "Join them together into one stick so that they will become one [echad] in your hand" (Ezekiel 37:17). But also a numeral: "Take one [echad] young bullock, and two rams without blemish ... And thou shalt put them into one [echad] basket" (Exodus 29:1,3); "And one [echad] loaf of bread, and one [echad] cake of oiled bread, and one [echad] wafer out of the basket of the unleavened bread that is before the LORD" (Exodus 29.23), etc. Hence, I am a little puzzled now. :) Surely, when Ezekiel is to put both sticks together (of the house of Israel of the house of Judah), a unity of essence is meant (or, better put: NOT a unity of person, at least.) So, am I reading you correctly when you say the Syriac chad can ONLY be used as a numeral? It is not what I heard, nor what I found myself. But clearly being the newbie here, I am at the mercy of the experts here. :) Much obliged, - Mark

Date: Mon, 23 Sep 2002 14:24 -0400 
From: Hayim Sheynin <hsheynin @ gratz.edu> 
Subject: Re: Odes of Solomon (fwd)

Dear Mark: Whoever answered your question (Shifra) is right and her opinion is not diametrically opposed to what I (and others) wrote to you. It really means 'one.' To translate it 'unique' means to stretch the regular meaning. This is a typical notion of the theologians to read whatever they like to read instead what is coming from the literal translation. You propose to have unexisting "hadanya hu". Theoretically it is possible, but it is not sounds well and should be eliminated on stylistic reasons. I recommend you to read Lohfink/Bergman article "Ehad 'echadh" in the Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, ed. G. Johannes Botterweck and Helmer Ringgren. Tr. John T. Willis, vol. 1. Gran Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans Publ. Co., 1974, pp.193-201. It seems that only once in the Hebrew Bible the world ehad was interpreted as if is expressing "uniqueness through election" (1Chron. 17:21). However even this occurance is not completely clear (See ibid., p. 198). Thus you cannot build a theory on basis of the word 'had'. Hayim ======= Dr. Hayim Y. Sheynin Adjunct Professor of Jewish Literature Head of Reference Services Tuttleman Library of Gratz College 7605 Old York Rd. Melrose Park, PA 19027 tel. 215 635-7300, ext. 161 fax: 215 635-7320 e-mail: hsheynin @ gratz.edu

Date: Mon, 23 Sep 2002 21:01 +0200 
From: Mark <admin @ asarian-host.net> 
Subject: Re: Odes of Solomon (fwd)

Dear Dr. Sheynin, Thank you for your reply (more within). > Dear Mark: > > Whoever answered your question (Shifra) is right and her opinion is not > diametrically opposed to what I (and others) wrote to you. It really means > 'one.' To translate it 'unique' means to stretch the regular meaning. Then we are in agreement. :) Because nowhere did I suggest, ever, that chad should mean 'unique'. I only asked whether the sense of "one" could also mean unity, as in: "Join them together into one stick so that they will become one [echad] in your hand" (Ezekiel 37:17). > This is a typical notion of the theologians to read whatever they > like to read instead what is coming from the literal translation. > You propose to have unexisting "hadanya hu". Theoretically it is > possible, but it is not sounds well and should be eliminated on > stylistic reasons. I asked, that if the Odist had meant a unity of essence, would he then have used: "hadanya hu"? I did not suggest/propose it as an emendation. I just asked it for clarification. > I recommend you to read Lohfink/Bergman article "Ehad 'echadh" in the > Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, ed. G. Johannes Botterweck > and Helmer Ringgren. Tr. John T. Willis, vol. 1. Gran Rapids, > Mich.: William B. Eerdmans Publ. Co., 1974, pp.193-201. It > seems that only once in the Hebrew Bible the world ehad was interpreted > as if is expressing "uniqueness through election" (1Chron. 17:21). > however even this occurance is not completely clear (See ibid., p. 198). > Thus you cannot build a theory on basis of the word 'had'. Uniqueness was never the issue. I never brought up 'uniqueness' in any of my posts, nor would I even, so no argument there. :) I really only wanted to know where (e)chad can express unity too. Kind regards, - Mark

Date: Mon, 23 Sep 2002 15:13 -0400 
From: rdhoberman @ notes.cc.sunysb.edu 
Subject: Re: Odes of Solomon (fwd)

This discussion seems to be going around in circles because it's disregarding some basic concepts of semantics. Words and their meanings exist in relationship to other words and meanings. Sometimes it's hierarchical: "oak" is a kind of "tree", "tree" and "bush" are kinds of "plants" -- "oak" is a hyponym of "tree", "tree" and "bush" are hyponyms of "plant". Sometimes a word has both a more general, vague, or ambiguous meaning and also a more specific one: think about "tie" (any sort of link or knot), but also "jacket and tie", "tie score". Sometimes this has a particular pattern, for which the technical term is "markedness": "waiter" can be male or female, "waitress" must be female, and if you say "It was a waiter, not a waitress", "waiter!" is definitely male. "Waiter" is unmarked for gender, "waitress" is marked female, but nevertheless "waiter" can, in a given context, mean unequivocally male. Is there a language anywhere in which the ordinary everyday word for "one" can mean ONLY 'unique' and not 'undivided',or ONLY 'undivided' and not 'unique'? I bet not. A language might well have words for 'unique' or 'undivided', but the existence of one of these is surely not going to make the basic 'one' word very specific in either direction. Theologians or specialists in any other field define their technical terms as they wish, but that doesn't affect the ordinary meanings of the words. (The restaurant workers' union may define "waiter" as being male only, if they like, or may define it as including both male and female, but that doesn't mean I'm confused if I say "The waiter said she'd be right back".) If you're interpreting a theologian's writing, by all means go by the technical definitions s/he would have had in mind, but if you're interpreting a poem or a story only the context can tell you! what the word means, and certainly not definitions established hundreds of years later. Bob Hoberman

Date: Tue, 24 Sep 2002 10:49 -0700 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: machzor yom kippur (fwd)

Please respond directly to "Michelle @ Darren" <bettabooks @ catchnet.com.au> -Sarah ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Mon, 23 Sep 2002 11:11:48 +1000 From: "Michelle @ Darren" <bettabooks @ catchnet.com.au> To: editor @ jewish-languages.org Subject: machzor yom kippur I am a bookbinder in wollongong Australia I am currently repairing a Jewish book Machzor Yom Kippur (translates) The book is written in German Jewish. The last page has been ruined and I am trying to get a copy of this page. If you or you know someone who can help me I would be very greatful. Thank You. Michelle Michelle & Darren Morrisey Betta Book Binding 26 Field Street Kanahooka NSW 2530 Australia Phone/Fax 612 4261 2998 Mobile 0414 612 990

Date: Thu, 26 Sep 2002 18:54 -0700 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: IPA-Hebrew correspondences (fwd)

Message From: Natalie Kehr <natalie.kehr @ dsl.pipex.com> Please respond directly to her. ------------------------------------------------------------- I am a middle aged lady who learned a little Hebrew when I was a child and is now trying to re-learn with the help of the Web and some ordinary dictionaries. I wish to create my own personal dictionary. Each entry will have (a) Hebrew without N'kuddot, (b) an English translation and (c) the pronunciation written in IPA. I am looking for a chart of correspondences between the IPA symbols and the sounds, particularly the vowels, used by modern educated Israelis. If I have to type any IPA I do it in a Microsoft Word document using Lucida Sans Autocode and so could easily read anything supplied in that form. (I am also not an expert in IPA - I only know enough to help me teach English as a second language.) My dictionary will eventually highlight the ambiguities in modern written Hebrew. Its progress might also interest someone researching different ways of learning. If anyone should be interested in it, then I would be pleased to forward them regular copies of how it is progressing. Many thanks (Mrs.) Natalie Kehr 10 Maybush Road Hornchurch Essex RM11 3LB England 01708 442161

October 2002

Date: Fri, 4 Oct 2002 09:00 -0700 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: expulsion of Muslims from Spain in 1496

Message from Moshe Cohen <cohnat @ macam.ac.il>. Please respond directly to him. ------------------------------------------------- On Wed, 2 Oct 2002, moshe wrote: > HI > For a paper on the process, i would like some advice on bibliography related > to the expulsion of the Muslims from Spain in1496 > MOSHE COHEN

Date: Wed, 9 Oct 2002 19:03 -0700 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Berkeley - *SPECIAL SESSION* -- Minority and Diasporic Languages of Europe

I thought you'd be interested in this conference, especially the special session, in which Joshua Fishman is an invited speaker. -Sarah ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Wed, 9 Oct 2002 13:32:32 -0700 (PDT) From: bls @ socrates.Berkeley.EDU To: penguists @ BABEL.ling.upenn.edu Subject: Berkeley Linguistics Society Call for Papers The Berkeley Linguistics Society is pleased to announce its Twenty-Ninth Annual Meeting, to be held February 14-17, 2003. The conference will consist of a General Session, a Parasession and a Special Session. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ *GENERAL SESSION* The General Session will cover all areas of linguistic interest. We encourage proposals from diverse theoretical frameworks and also welcome papers on language-related topics from disciplines such as Anthropology, Cognitive Science, Literature, Neuroscience and Psychology. *Invited Speakers* Judith Aissen, University of California, Santa Cruz Mark Hale, Concordia University Royal Skousen, Brigham Young University Arnold Zwicky, Stanford University *PARASESSION* -- Phonetic Sources of Phonological Patterns: Synchronic and Diachronic Explanations The Parasession invites submissions on the role of phonetics in shaping phonological patterns. Papers representing all views and approaches are sought. Those addressing the relative merits of synchronic and diachronic explanations of phonetically-motivated phonological patterns are particularly welcomed. *Invited Speakers* Juliette Blevins, University of California, Berkeley Charles Reiss, Concordia University Donca Steriade, Massachusetts Institute of Technology *SPECIAL SESSION* -- Minority and Diasporic Languages of Europe The Special Session will cover minority and diasporic languages of Europe. Languages of interest include minority, threatened and diasporic European languages and dialects, in both Europe and former colonies and in immigrant and heritage situations, as well as pidgins and creoles based on languages spoken in Europe. Proposals from linguistics and related fields are encouraged. *Invited Speakers* Julie Auger, Indiana University J. Clancy Clements, Indiana University Joshua Fishman, Yeshiva University ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ***ABSTRACT SUBMISSION GUIDELINES*** Presented papers are published in the BLS Proceedings. Authors agree to provide camera-ready copy (not exceeding 12 pages) by May 15, 2003. Presentations are allotted 20 minutes with 10 minutes for questions. An author may submit at most one single and one joint abstract. In case of joint authorship, one address should be designated for communication with BLS. Abstracts should be as specific as possible, with a statement of topic, approach and conclusions. Abstracts may be at most four hundred words. The reverse side of the single page may be used for data and references only. 10 copies of an anonymous, one-page (8.5"x11") abstract should be sent, along with a 3"x5" card listing: (1) paper title (2) session (General/Para/Special) (3) name(s) of author(s) (4) affiliation(s) of author(s) (5) address whither notification of acceptance should be mailed (Nov-Dec 2002) (6) contact phone number for each author (7) email address for each author ***for General Session submissions only*** (8) subfield (syntax, phonology, etc.) ***for Para-/Special Session submissions only*** (9) indication of whether you wish to have your abstract considered for the General Session if the organizers determine that your paper will not fit the other sessions *SEND ABSTRACTS TO* BLS 29 Abstracts Committee University of California Linguistics Department 1203 Dwinelle Hall Berkeley, CA 94720-2650 Abstracts must be received in our office (not postmarked) by 4:00 p.m., November 27, 2002. We cannot accept faxed abstracts. Abstracts submitted via e-mail are also accepted. Only those abstracts formatted as ASCII text or a Microsoft Word (Mac version strongly preferred) attachment can be accepted. The text of the message must contain the information requested in (1)-(9) above. Electronic submissions may be sent to ***bls @ socrates.berkeley.edu*** ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ***REGISTRATION INFORMATION*** All attendees, including presenters, must register for the meeting. For advance registration, we can accept only checks or money orders drawn on US banks in US dollars, made payable to Berkeley Linguistics Society. Received in our office by February 2, 2003: Students $20 Non-students $40 Received after February 2, 2003: Students $25 Non-students $55 *SEND ADVANCE REGISTRATION TO* BLS 29 Registration University of California Linguistics Department 1203 Dwinelle Hall Berkeley, CA 94720-2650 ***BLS will arrange ASL interpretation if requested through bls @ socrates.berkeley.edu before 12/1/02*** We may be contacted by e-mail at bls @ socrates.berkeley.edu. .............................. Berkeley Linguistics Society University of California, Berkeley Department of Linguistics 1203 Dwinelle Hall Berkeley, CA 94720-2650 Phone/Fax: 510-642-5808 find information on BLS meetings and availability of proceedings at: http://www.linguistics.berkeley.edu/BLS/

Date: Thu, 10 Oct 2002 09:33 -0700 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: IJSL issue on diglossia

Date: Wed, 09 Oct 2002 13:11:47 +0200 From: Julia Ulrich <Julia.Ulrich @ deGruyter.com> Subject: IJSL 157 (2002) FOCUS ON DIGLOSSIA INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE SOCIOLOGY OF LANGUAGE General Editor: Joshua A. Fishman ISSN: 0165-2516 ONLINE ACCESS is now available to all institutional subscribers of the print version at no extra charge. To register for free online access, please contact us at o-journals@deGruyter.com for more information. 2002, Issue 157 FOCUS ON DIGLOSSIA Issue Editor: Joshua A. Fishman This focus issue is affectionately dedicated to the memory of Charles A. Ferguson 1921 - 1998. CONTENTS FOCUS ARTICLE ALAN HUDSON Outline of a theory of diglossia REVIEWER'S COMMENTS MARIA-JOSE AZURMENDI Comentarios FLORIAN COULMAS Writing is crucial NANCY C. DORIAN Diglossia and the simplification of linguistic space MOHA ENNAJI Comment RALPH W. FASOLD The importance of community JOSHUA A. FISHMAN Diglossia and societal multilingualism: dimensions of similarity and difference ANNA FRANGOUDAKI Greek societal bilingualism of more than a century WALTER HAAS Comment ALAN S. KAYE Comment CHRISTINA BRATT PAULSTON Comment SUZANNE ROMAINE Can stable diglossia help to preserve endangered languages? HAROLD F. SCHIFFMAN Comment REBUTTAL ESSAY ALAN HUDSON Diglossia, bilingualism, and history: postscript to a theoretical discussion SMALL LANGUAGES AND SMALL LANGUAGE COMMUNITIES 39 BRUCE CONNELL Phonetic/phonological variation and language contraction For subscription information please contact the publisher: Mouton de Gruyter Genthiner Str. 13 10785 Berlin, Germany Fax: +49 30 26005 222 e-mail: wdg-info @ degruyter.de Journals and titles published by Mouton de Gruyter can be ordered via the World Wide Web at: http://www.degruyter.com/

Date: Tue, 15 Oct 2002 12:10 -0700 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Call for papers; AATSP; Sephardic Studies; Aug. 2-4, 2003; Chicago - Deadline extended to November 10th, 2002

From: "Nechama" <nechamakr @ worldnet.att.net> Please forward to colleagues interested in Sephardic Studies > Next year the AATSP meeting will take place in Chicago. Sessions will > run 2-4 August 2003, at the Fairmont Chicago Hotel (a great location, > near Michigan Ave). Further details in the Sept. 2002 issue of Hispania, > > For your information, this year, the deadline that the AATSP set for > proposals has been changed drastically. Please note that proposals > should come to the chairperson by 15 October 2002. The Chairperson, in > turn, will have until 15 November 2002, to send the AATSP the completed > description of the session, lists of participants, title of > presentations and a list of needed Audio Visuals. Please make sure you > are a paid 2003 AATSP member. > > As a result we have but 2 months to receive your proposals. > *****Deadline has been extended to November 10, 2002 > Please forward to interested parties. > ****************************** > SEPHARDIC STUDIES > > TOPIC: COVERSOS Y EXILIO: HISTORIA Y LITERATURA > > Languages of presentation: English, Spanish or Portuguese. > > Presenters may discuss and elaborate on any facet of exile in the life > and or the literature of the conversos: > > Exile as a theme in literature. > The effect of exile on the revival of Jewish communities. > The effect of exile on the life and literary works of the individual > converso. > Voluntary exile vs. forced exile. > Conversion or exile vs. conversion or death. > How did Iberian Expulsions (1492; 1496) and forced conversions (1497-98) > to Christianity influenced the formation of a new literary genre, that > of the Converso. > Literary representations of the Diaspora/Exile of the Iberian New > Chrisitians for more than three centuries (1492-1850). > > These are only some EXAMPLES, from many more you could come up with. > > Please send abstracts to > Dr. Nechama Kramer-Hellinx, 54 Ingram Street, Forest Hills NY 11375, USA > > Email: <mailto:nechamakr @ worldnet.att.net> nechamakr @ worldnet.att.net > Fax: 1-718-793 3385 > Tel: 1-718- 793 3384 > > Thanks, Gracias, Obrigada > Nechama

Date: Thu, 17 Oct 2002 00:37 -0400 
From: Mihalevy @ aol.com 
Subject: Kein Thema

Fifth International Conference of the German Association of Portuguese Studies, hosted by the Institute of Romance Philology at Rostock University, Germany. Sessions will run 18-21 September 2003. Scholars from all over the world are invited to contribute to the conference which will focus on the cultural history of the Jews in Portugal and the Portuguese Jews in Northern Europe, Africa, Asia and in the Caribbean. For information please contact: Michael Halévy, University of Hamburg: mihalevy @ aol.com Please forward to interested parties.

Date: Tue, 22 Oct 2002 13:00 -0700 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: recording a dying language (fwd)

This is a message from Dennis Shasha <shasha @ cs.nyu.edu>. Please respond directly to him. ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Dear Colleagues, We are amateurs at this and we seek your assistance. We believe that the Bagdhadi Jewish dialect will no longer be spoken by anyone in just a few years. We are generalizing from the people in the community we know, but we believe this is true. Besides the death of the language, there is the issue of the death of the oral histories. So, my brother Robert Shasha and I have become interested in recording oral histories, recording their translations, and publishing the translations. Our questions: 1. Are there similar projects for Bagdhadi Judeo-Arabic already in the works? If so, then the linguistic aspect of our project is redundant. 2. If not, would anyone on the list be interested in participating in this project and if so how? 3. Finally, a technical point, we hear that minidiscs are a good recording medium for this sort of thing. Could anyone tell us which brand to get? Warm Regards, Robert and Dennis Prof. Dennis Shasha Department of Computer Science Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences New York University 251 Mercer Street New York, N.Y. 10012-1185 U.S.A. Tel: +1 (212) 998-3086 Fax: 212-995-4123 Internet: shasha @ cs.nyu.edu Web: http://cs.nyu.edu/cs/faculty/shasha/index.html

Date: Tue, 22 Oct 2002 15:59 -0400 
From: Paul Glasser <pglasser @ yivo.cjh.org> 
Subject: Re: recording a dying language

Are you familiar with the Jacob Mansour (I think that's the correct spelling) books on the subject? P.(H.)G. Dr. Paul (Hershl) Glasser Associate Dean, Max Weinreich Center Senior Research Associate, Yiddish Language 212-246-6080 X6139 (ph) 212-292-1892 (fax) mailto:pglasser @ yivo.cjh.org YIVO Institute for Jewish Research 15 West 16 Street New York, New York 10011 http://www.yivo.org

Date: Tue, 22 Oct 2002 14:40 -0700 
From: Yona Sabar <sabar @ humnet.ucla.edu> 
Subject: Re: recording a dying language

Another good source on the dialect is H. Blanc, Communal Dialects in Baghdad, Cambridge, 1964.

Date: Wed, 23 Oct 2002 08:30 +0200 
From: Yaakov Bentolila <bentoli @ bgumail.bgu.ac.il> 
Subject: Re: recording a dying language

You should also become acquainted with the works of Isaac Avishur from Haifa University, who has dealt with Iraqi Jewish language, literature and folklore (mostly in Hebrew papers). Yaakov Bentolila

Date: Thu, 24 Oct 2002 06:38 +0900 
From: Tsuguya Sasaki <ts @ ts-cyberia.net> 
Subject: 34th Annual Conference of the AJS

I thought you might be interested to know that the program of the 34th Annual Conference of the Association for Jewish Studies is available online now: http://www.brandeis.edu/ajs/List%20of%20Sessions%202002.html Tsuguya Sasaki http://www.ts-cyberia.net/

Date: Wed, 30 Oct 2002 13:38 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor@stanford.edu
Subject: Yiddish morphological etymology

Professor Sol Cohen is curious about the origin of the feminine Yiddish suffix -ne or -ene, as in Yakhne and yidene. Does anyone know where this comes from? And can anyone think of other instances of it? Please respond to Professor Cohen <cohensol @ sas.upenn.edu> and to the list. Thanks, Sarah Bunin Benor

Date: Wed, 30 Oct 2002 19:12 -0500 
From: George Jochnowitz <jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu> 
Subject: Wild guesses

Haverim, Here are some unconnected thoughts about Yakhne and Yidene: The German word for "Jewess" is Ju"din. The Romance diminutive suffix that appears as -in, -ine, in French and -ino, -ina in Italian might survive in Yidene. Perhaps -inke and -inyu have the Romance -in followed by another diminutive morpheme, -ke or -ye. As we know, the Slavic suffix -in, found in surnames based on women's first names, is often added to a diminutive. Thus, Beilin coexists with Belkin (bel- + -ke + -in), and Rivkin coexists with Rivlin (riv- + -l + -in). Yakhne sounds as if it is a shortening of Yokhanan, perhaps analogous to Johannes and Johanna. I have a vague feeling that when -etto and -ino are both acceptable in Italian, as in vaporetto, vaporino, poveretto, poverino, etc., Italian Jews seem to prefer the -ino. I am not at all sure about this. George

Date: Thu, 31 Oct 2002 00:41 -0600 
From: Cohen, Izzy @ izzy_cohen @ bmc.com> 
Subject: Re: Yiddish morphological etymology

The English feminine suffix -ine is thought to come from Greek via Latin and French: -ine [4] a suffix of distinctively feminine nouns (chorine; heroine), given names Josephine; Pauline), and feminine titles (margravine). [< F -ine < L -ina < Gk -ine] margravine (mär'gruh veen ) n. wife of a margrave [equivalent to a British marquis]. [1685-95; < MD marcgravinne = marcgrave MARGRAVE + -inne fem. n. suffix; cf. G Markgräfin] So, this feminine suffix also occurs in German. Israel Cohen izzy_cohen @ bmc.com

Date: Thu, 31 Oct 2002 10:04 -0500 
From: Miriam Isaacs <misaacs @ wam.umd.edu> 
Subject: derivation of a name

Does anyone have a guess at the source of the name of the Zionist hero, Trumpledor? Miriam Isaacs

Date: Thu, 31 Oct 2002 15:10 +0000 
From: Ghil`ad ZUCKERMANN <gz208 @ cam.ac.uk> 
Subject: Re: derivation of a name

Is it perhaps Trumpoli+Dorf? gz www.zuckermann.org

Date: Thu, 31 Oct 2002 11:40 -0500 
From: George Jochnowitz <Jochnowitz@postbox.csi.cuny.edu
Subject: Re: derivation of a name

Trumpeldor was born in Pyatigorsk, in the northern Caucasus. I don't know what languages are spoken there, nor do I know whether that was where the family came from, since his father was in the army of the Tsar. But perhaps the name reflects a language of the Caucasus, although it doesn't sound like a Caucasian language. George

Date: Thu, 31 Oct 2002 10:26 -0600 
From: Cohen, Izzy <izzy_cohen @ bmc.com> 
Subject: RE: derivation of a name :-)

http://www.mfa.gov.il/mfa/go.asp?MFAH0eg40 Perhaps the most cryptically named street is Rehov Hagidem, in Jerusalem as well as in Haifa. Its meaning: street of the amputated one; it was named after Joseph Trumpledor, who was killed defending the northern settlement of Tel Hai, and who had previously lost an arm when fighting for Russia against Japan in 1906. Compare truncate [1480-90; < L truncatus, ptp. of truncare to lop, der. of truncus TRUNK; see - ATE 1] trumpet [1375-1425; ME trumpette, trompette < MF, = trompe TRUMP 2 + -ette - ET] trump 2. Informal. a fine person; brick = an admirable person. 4. to excel; surpass; outdo. [1520-30; unexplained var. of TRIUMPH] + Fr le doré = the golden/gilded one -> "gold brick" :-) tramp [1350-1400; ME: to stamp, prob. < MLG trampen = to tramp, tread; akin to Go anatrimpan = to crowd] trample [1350-1400; ME tramplen = to stamp, akin to MHG trampeln; see TRAMP, - LE] MY BEST GUESS: Maybe Joseph Trumpledor's ancestors were circus performers. trampoline (tram puh leen', tram'puh leen , -lin) n. [1790-1800; var. of trampolin < It trampolino = springboard < trampol(i) = stilts (< Gmc; see TRAMPLE) + -ino - INE 3] Of course, they may simply have wandering Jews from Poland. :-) Pole -> LG, dial. D stilte = pole -> It trampoli -> Trumple+dor izzy_cohen @ bmc.com

Date: Thu, 31 Oct 2002 12:56 -0500 
From: <jweiser3 @ alumni.law.upenn.edu> 
Subject: More Yiddish etymology

Since we are "kind of" on the subject, I would like to know the origin of the Yiddish word "az" as the conjunction for (non-relative) nominal clauses, or propositions.

Date: Thu, 31 Oct 2002 14:22 -0500 
From: George Jochnowitz <jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu> 
Subject: az

I assume German "als" and English "as" are cognate with "az." George

Date: Thu, 31 Oct 2002 17:30 -0500 
From: George Jochnowitz <jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu> 
Subject: cognate and czy

Polish "czy" means "whether" and is used to introduce a yes-no question. According to my Random House Dictionary, English "as" comes from Old English _alswa_ ,_ealswa_ meaning "all so," and is thus related to "also," reflecting a semantic split. By cognate, I mean descending from a common ancestor, perhaps West Germanic. George

Date: Thu, 31 Oct 2002 15:39 -0800 
From: Jess Olson <jso @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Re: az

On Thu, 31 Oct 2002, George Jochnowitz wrote: > I assume German "als" and English "as" are cognate with "az." I assumed that "az" was a Hebrew loan word. Its syntactic usage seems somewhere in between the Hebrew word "als" and the Hebrew word "az." But I could be wrong. Jess Olson

Date: Thu, 31 Oct 2002 16:06 -0800 
From: Jess Olson <jso @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Re: az

On Thu, 31 Oct 2002, Jess Olson wrote: > On Thu, 31 Oct 2002, George Jochnowitz wrote: > > > I assume German "als" and English "as" are cognate with "az." > > I assumed that "az" was a Hebrew loan word. Its syntactic usage seems > somewhere in between the Hebrew word "als" and the Hebrew word "az." > > But I could be wrong. Sorry...the above should read "somewhere in between the _German_ word als and the Hebrew word "az." Jess Olson

Date: Thu, 31 Oct 2002 17:55 -0800 
From: Yona Sabar <sabar @ humnet.ucla.edu> 
Subject: Re: derivation of a name

I always "thought" that Trumpeldor was "Spanish" (or "Judeo-Spanish"?) as one can see from the following anecdote (submitted in the spirit of Halloween): An Israeli in Spain went to see a bullfighting, but he didn't have the money for the ticket. So, he stood aside and watched which people are let in without paying. One says "Matador!", and is let in; another says "Toreador!", etc. The Israeli says to himself: "OK, I got the trick!" and approaches the gate man and says: "Trumpeldor!", and he is let in .... Yona Sabar

Date: Thu, 31 Oct 2002 23:34 -0500 
From: K I Weiser <kweiser @ yorku.ca> 
Subject: Re: az

Have you considered that it might quite simply be derived from Middle High German? What does M. Weinreich have to say? Kalman Weiser

Date: Thu, 31 Oct 2002 23:39 -0500 
From: K I Weiser <kweiser @ yorku.ca> 
Subject: Re: More Yiddish etymology

Woops. My apology for my earlier response concerning 'az.' I did not read my email in the correct order and understand now that the question originally posed is more complicated than I had realized. K Weiser

November 2002

Date: Fri, 1 Nov 2002 09:41 +0000 
From: Ghil`ad ZUCKERMANN <gz208 @ cam.ac.uk> 
Subject: Re: derivation of a name - Jew's Harp/Trump (cf. Trumpel); Trumpeldor and Theodor; Yona and Yunes

> An Israeli in Spain went to see a bullfighting, but he didn't have > the money for the ticket. So, he stood aside and watched which > people are let in without paying. One says "Matador!", and is let > in; another says "Toreador!", etc. The Israeli says to himself: > "OK, I got the trick!" and approaches the gate man and says: > "Trumpeldor!", and he is let in .... This might remind one of the Israeli teenager who was asked to provide his geography teacher with three toponyms with the word NES, and said: NES-tsiona; NES-harim and khan-yuNES. gz

Date: Sun, 3 Nov 2002 18:13 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: website renewal

Hello, Jewish language scholars. It's almost time for us to renew our website domain (www.jewish-languages.org), and that costs $20/year. At this point, we do not have any outside funding, so we rely on donations from you to keep the website going. Last year we had to pay $80 because it was our first year. And last year we collected a total of $50 from some of you. So now I'm writing to ask for your help to complete our budget. We'd like to raise money for the next 3 years, so our goal is to raise $90 this month. If you would like to donate $10 (or less - or more!), please e-mail me to let me know. Thank you. Sincerely, Sarah Bunin Benor Editor, www.jewish-languages.org (inspired by NPR fundraisers...)

Date: Mon, 4 Nov 2002 11:36 +0900 
From: Tsuguya Sasaki <ts @ ts-cyberia.net> 
Subject: Re: website renewal

Sarah, > It's almost time for us to renew our website domain > (www.jewish-languages.org), and that costs $20/year. > > Last year we had to pay $80 because it was our first year. To maintain our website we need $80 not only in the first year but *every year*: $20 for the domain name, and $60 for the virtual hosting. Tsuguya Sasaki

Date: Mon, 4 Nov 2002 15:51 +0900 
From: Tsuguya Sasaki <ts @ ts-cyberia.net> 
Subject: lexical database

I am planning to build an annotated corpus and a lexical database of Modern Hebrew, and actually I am going to give a talk on this topic in the coming AJS conference in LA. Although I am more or less convinced that XML is an ideal format for corpus annotations, I cannot be so certain whether XML is really preferable to other alternatives, including a relational database management system, as the storage format of a lexical database. XML itself is not meant to be a database, so a "native XML database" management system is required or XSLT stylesheets with XPath must be developed for queries. Especially if you have any experience in building a lexical database, I would like to hear your opinions about this combination of a lexical database and XML, including its pros and cons. Thank you very much in advance. Tsuguya Sasaki http://www.ts-cyberia.net/

Date: Mon, 11 Nov 2002 07:26 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Romanian scholar needs Aramaic texts

Bors Teodor, a graduate student at the Jewish Studies Institute in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, is working on research about Neo-Aramaic dialects. He is in need of texts, especially in the Zakho, Turoyo, and Mlahso dialects. If you have any way of helping him, please respond directly to Mr. Teodor at <inkubus @ personal.ro>. Thank you, Sarah Bunin Benor

December 2002

Date: Sun, 8 Dec 2002 14:02 -0500 
From: Devon Strolovitch <dls38 @ cornell.edu> 
Subject: Hebrew in Portugal

Hello, I'm looking for any work that deals with the pronunciation of Hebrew in (medieval) Portugal. As far as I know, the only ones to deal with it at any length are S. Morag's entry in EJ, and an earlier article by I. Garbell from the 1950s that treats Spain and Portugal as one. I also know of studies of Portuguese Hebrew manuscripts by T. Metzger and G. Sed-Rajna, but their focus is less linguistic. I seem to recall a series called "lashon ve-eda" or thereabouts that dealt specifically with "community traditions" of Hebrew, but I haven't had luck tracking it down here. Any help would be greatly appreciated. Devon Strolovitch Cornell University Linguistics Department Morrill Hall Ithaca, NY 14853-4701

Date: Sun, 8 Dec 2002 13:34 -0800 
From: Heidi G. Lerner <lerner @ sulmail.stanford.edu> 
Subject: Re: Hebrew in Portugal

Dear Devon, There is a series called "Edah ve-lashon" that emanates from the Hebrew University Language Traditions Project. Heid Lerner Hebraica/Judaica Cataloger Stanford University Libraries Stanford, CA 43005-6004 e-mail: lerner @ stanford.edu ph: 650-725-9953

Date: Thu, 12 Dec 2002 16:17 +0900 
From: Tsuguya Sasaki <ts @ ts-cyberia.net> 
Subject: Re: Hebrew in Portugal

Devon Strolovitch wrote: > I seem to recall a series called "lashon ve-eda" or > thereabouts that dealt specifically with "community > traditions" of Hebrew, but I haven't had luck tracking > it down here. There seems to be no publication dealing with Hebrew in Portugal in the series _eda velashon_ published by The Jewish Oral Traditions Research Center (formerly The Hebrew University Language Traditions Project). Please check the following website, which also list all the publications of this important series. http://www.hum.huji.ac.il/masorot/ Tsuguya Sasaki http://www.ts-cyberia.net/

Date: Thu, 19 Dec 2002 22:29 +0900 
From: Tsuguya Sasaki <ts @ ts-cyberia.net> 
Subject: The Oxford Handbook of Jewish Studies

I thought you might be interested to know that the following title has just been published: Goodman, M. (ed.). 2002. The Oxford Handbook of Jewish Studies. New York: Oxford University Press. It includes the following language-related entries: The Hebrew Language by Pablo-Isaac Halevi (Kirtchuk) Yiddish Studies by Cecile E. Kuznitz Judaeo-Spanish Studies by Ora R. Schwarzwald Judaeo-Arabic and Judaeo-Persian by Geoffrey Khan Tsuguya Sasaki

Date: 25 Dec 2002 13:32 -0500 
From: Mike Atamas <webmaster @ aelfgar.com> 
Subject: ladino

I am trying to teach my son Ladino. My own knowledge of the language is fairly limited, so teaching him is fairly difficult. I wanted to know if anyone knew of some books on the language. I myself have been unable to find any. Thank You Mike Atamas aelfgar @ aelfgar.com

Date: 26 Dec 2002 10:40 -0500 
From: Mike Atamas <webmaster @ aelfgar.com> 
Subject: Re: ladino

My son is only a couple of months old. I wanted to learn ladino myself and then teach him. This has been a long time goal of mine for two reasons. First, I am an amateur linguist, and second my familiy is Sephardic. My grandparents were forced to move to Crimea and to speak to the natives they learned Yiddish and Russian and fogot Ladino, so my parents do not speak Ladino. My grandparents wanted me to learn it, and I am trying to honor their wish. -- Mike Atamas <webmaster @ aelfgar.com>

January 2003

Date: Wed, 8 Jan 2003 22:54:48 +0200 
From: Yohanan Friedmann <msyfried @ mscc.huji.ac.il> 
Subject: Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, vol. 26(2002) and 27(2002)

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem The Institute of Asian and African Studies The Max Schloessinger Memorial Foundation is pleased to announce the publication of Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam vol. 26(2002) (278 pp.) and vol. 27(2002) (609 pp.) Studies in honour of Shaul Shaked [Several articles on Judaeo-Arabic, Judaeo-Persian and Judaeo-Turkic are included in vol. 27] Volume 26 - Guest editor: Werner Sundermann (Freie Universitat, Berlin) Table of Contents: W. Sundermann, Foreword J. Kellens, Reflexions sur la datation de Zoroastre P.O. Skjaervo, Praise and blame in the Avesta: The poet-sacrificer and his duties H. Humbach, Yama/Yima/Jamsed, king of Paradise of the Iranians R. Frye, Ethnic identity in Ancient Iran G. Gnoli, The "Aryan" language A. Hultgard, Creation and emanation: Zoroastrian reflections on the cosmogonic myth M. Macuch, The Talmudic expression "Servant of the Fire" in light of Pahlavi legal sources G. Lazard, Encore la versification Pehlevie A.V. Rossi, Middle Iranian "gund" between Aramaic and Indo-Iranian W. Sundermann, "El" as an epithet of the Manichaean "Third Messenger" P. Gignoux, Une amulette du Museum fur Islamische Kunst de Berlin G. Veltri, The figure of the magician in Rabbinical literature:from empirical science to theology J.R. Russel, Room at the inn: Armenian P'ut'kavank and Sroasa G.G. Stroumsa, Thomas Hyde and the birth of Zoroastrian studies J. Naveh, Some new Jewish Palestinian Aramaic amulets Reviews by J.N. Ford and Meir M. Bar Asher Volume 27 - Table of Contents M.J. Kister, The struggle against Musaylima and the conquest of Yamama A. Arazi, Les poemes sur la nativite du Prophete Muhammad a Grenade au XIV siecle D. Shulman, Tamil praises and the Prophet: Kacimpulavar's "Tiruppukal" M. Lecker, The levying of taxes for the Sasanians in pre-Islamic Medina (Yathrib) R. Shani, Noah's Ark and the ship of faith S. Sviri, Words of power and the power of words M. Omidsalar, Orality, mouvance and editorial theory in Shahnama studies M. Zakeri, Some early Persian apophthegms (tawqi`at) H. Daiber, Der Aristoteleskommentar Alexander von Aphrodisias (2/3 Jh. n. Chr) und der samaritanische Gelehrte Levi uber die Ewigkeit der Welt J. Blau, Hebrew versus other languages of the medieval Jewish society A. Levin, An interpretation of a difficult passage from the Kitab G. Khan, The notion of transitive and intransitive actions in the early Karaite grammatical tradition S Hopkins, On the Vorlage of an early Judaeo-Arabic translation of Proverbs S. Stroumsa, From the earliest Judaeo-Arabic commentary on Genesis T. Gindin, Three fragments of an early Judaeo-Persian "Tafsir" on Ezekiel A. Netzer, Early Judaeo-Persian fragment from Zafreh E. Yarshater, The Jewish dialect of Kashan S. Soroudi, "Sofreh" of Elijah the prophet: a pre-Islamic Iranian ritual? D. Shapira, Five Judaeo-Turkic notes M. Amir Mo`ezzi Shahbanu, dame du pays d'Iran et mere des imams entre l'Iran pre-Islamique et le Shiisme imamite E. Jeremias, Rabita in the classical Persian literay tradition: the impact of Arabic logic on Persian Reviews by M. Schwartz, L. Chipman, S. Gunther and J. Rubanovich ------------------------------ ORDER-FORM Special offer: Complete set of JSAI (27 volumes): $540 (special offers for direct sales only, not through booksellers). Each volume: $35. Postage and handling: $2.00 for the first volume; $1.00 for each additional volume. Individuals only may join the association "From Jahiliyya to Islam". Membership costs $50. For their dues, members receive two volumes of JSAI and a 30% discount on all Schloessinger Memorial Foundation publications. Cheques payable to the Schloessinger Memorial Foundation should be sent to the Director of Publications, The Max Schloessinger Memorial Foundation, Institute of Asian and African Studies, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Please note that we cannot accept Eurocheques or credit cards, but personal and institutional cheques in your currency are accepted. Inquiries: E-mail: msjsai @ pluto.mscc.huji.ac.il / Fax: +972- 2-588-3658 Please send the following: Name: Address: Yours sincerely, ----------------------------- Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam The Max Schloessinger Memorial Foundation The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Jerusalem 91905, Israel Fax: +972-2-588-3658

Date: Mon, 13 Jan 2003 10:56:12 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: alphabet conference (fwd)

Forwarded message about a very interesting conference for graduate students. -Sarah ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Thu, 9 Jan 2003 13:26:34 -0500 (EST) From: Daniel Kokin <kokin @ fas.harvard.edu> Cc: eboeckel @ fas.harvard.edu Subject: alphabet conference Dear All, Greetings! I wanted to tell you all about this conference which I am helping to organize and to encourage your participation and suggestions. If you or others you know might are interested in presenting, please be in touch with us! Pass the word on to others who might be interested. Regards, Daniel CALL FOR PAPER ABstraCtS! The Harvard Humanities Center Proudly Presents Alphabetics An Interdisciplinary Graduate Student Conference Saturday and Sunday, April 26-27, 2003 Letters are ubiquitous, multifunctional, and largely ignored. While each discipline must to some degree acknowledge the contribution of alphabets to knowledge production, transmission, and organization, rarely do alphabetics take the center stage of scholarly attention across the disciplines. This conference aims to expose participants from various fields and the general academic community to the wide range of uses and interpretations -literary, political, mystical, artistic, linguistic, etc.- for which alphabets and their component letters have been marshaled. Do letters constitute a universal repository of meaning? Is there a "the Alphabet"? All proposals treating letters, alphabets, or alternate writing system are welcome, but special consideration will be given to topics that fall into one or more of the following areas: Writing Systems (History, development, and nature of various writing systems; transliteration and meaning; typography; paleography; printing) Letter as Symbol (Letters in math or scientific notation, alphabet as code, semiotics, mystical alphabets, music, alphabet as organizational concept) Letter in Visual Arts, Letter as Visual Art (Alphabet and architecture, textuality of art, visual literacy, letter in film, calligraphy, human alphabets, digital effects, watermarks) Literary Effects of the Alphabet (Combinatorial literature, letter play [e.g. figured poetry, alphabet rhymes, letter games, puns, rebuses, acrostics, palindromes, anagrams, lipograms, univocalics, spoonerisms], alphabet in psychoanalysis (especially Lacan), chirography, children's literature, primers) Alphabets and Society (History of the book, orthographic reforms, nation and alphabet, religion and alphabet, literacy, the teaching of alphabets, the signature) Special Conference Events: 1. A Concert of Baroque Alphabetic Music 2. Printing Press Demonstration (tentative) 3. Keynote Address (Speaker TBA) 4. Houghton Library Exhibition: 16 March-30 April Please submit e-mail abstracts of up to 500 words to alphabet @ fas.harvard.edu by January 31, 2003. Include your name, university, department, area of specialization, and suggestions you may have for the Houghton exhibit! We look forward to hearing from you! Erika Boeckeler (Comparative Literature) and Daniel Kokin (History) Conference Organizers

Date: Mon, 13 Jan 2003 23:59:56 -0600 
From: Cohen, Izzy <izzy_cohen @ bmc.com> 
Subject: alphabet conference (fwd) => Rashi script

On the Antiquity of the (so-called) Rashi Script ================================================ Dan "Moonhawk" Alford wrote: > ... one Sanskrit tradition closer to the writing demands keeping > the sounds accurate in order to preserve their vibrational power > even if the verbal meaning fades; another, spoken, tradition demands > staying with the meaning while the regional sounds become variable. When the sound of a letter changes, for example: aleph - GHT/CHS --> T --> current glottal stop (written as ? below). The Rashi aleph is similar to a modern het. This is evidence that the ancient aleph once had a somewhat het-like sound. bet - MB --> B The Rashi bet looks somewhat like an M turned 90 deg clockwise. Compare Latin mansio = abode & Hebrew BayiS; mausoleum & beis-3olam. heh - DH --> H It seems the ancient heh had a DH sound. This may explain why heh is the definite article in Hebrew while "the" has this function in English. consonantal vav - F --> V het1 - W --> KH (written as X below) Compare ancient Greek digamma and Germanic Wynn. het2 - X = KS --> KH Compare English/Spanish Mexico. yod - G/K --> Y mem - M --> W a "lazy" mem (made with the mouth not fully closed) sometimes sounds like a W in other languages. aiyin - G/K --> almost soundless velar (written as 3 below) tzadi - S --> TZ The Rashi tzadi has a thin S shape. shin - D/T --> SH (note the T in English -tion and -tial suffixes) The Rashi shin looks like a modern tet turned 90 deg clockwise. This is evidence that the ancient shin had a tet-like sound. SHeN = tooth. Compare TaN = jackal, TaNiN = crocodile. Giving the ancient shin a dental sound makes SHeN cognate with L dens and Sanskrit dánta; and LaTiN/LaDiNo related to LaSHoN = tongue. sounds of resh/nun/lamed rotate. Often: lamed = N, nun = R, resh = L. Both of the Sanskrit "traditions" mentioned by Moonhawk occur in (proto)Hebrew. 1 - The word retains its original spelling but acquires the new sound. Example 1: bet-aleph = come, come in BaCHS --> Ba? (where ? = glottal stop) Compare Bacchus, Gk god of wine/fertility; female body-part box. For semantic range, compare English "come on to" = sexual advance and the noun "come" = semen. Example 2: "Fire, Women, and Other Dangerous Things" aleph-shin oCHSa:D --> ?a:SH = fire Compare oxid(ation), the essence of fire. *shin-heh-aleph D/T-[D]H-oGHT --> aleph-shin-heh ?iSHaH = wife, woman. Compare daughter/Tochter. In ancient times, the Hebrew wife went to live with the tribe of her husband. For everyone else, she was like another daughter. Only for her husband was she a wife. After the aleph lost its sound, it usually moved to the beginning of the Hebrew word, so most correspondences (today) have the form: aleph-C1-(C2) = C1-(C2)-GHT. 2 - The word retains its original sound but becomes respelled with other letters that afterwards most nearly represent that sound. I call this the NBOW (new bottle, old whine) phenomena. This may involve "borrowing back" the original sound from a neighboring language in which that sound did not change. Examples: het-shin replaces aleph. In Aramaic, het-dalet replaces aleph. *aleph-bet = 1,2 = *to count --> het-shin-bet KHaTaV --> KHaSHaV = to count. Compare Latin abacus < Gk ábax = a counting board. *aleph-bet-lamed --> het-shin-mem-lamed=(color of) amber/electrum Ezekiel 1:4 --> XaSHMaL = electricity electrum = an ancient amber-colored alloy of gold and silver. Amber becomes charged with static electricity when rubbed. *nun-aleph-saf --> nun-het-shin-taf NaXoSHeT = copper. Compare het-yod-nun-heh XeNaH = henna (copper colored) *nun-aleph --> nun-het-shin = snake. Compare Eunectes murinus = anaconda < anacandaia < Sinhalese henakandaya [This is easier to read with a Courier non-proportional font.] Another example: Hebrew has replaced the presumed *heh = DH with a dalet. Greek and Latin lost the D in the DH and have an H-sound: DaM = blood Gk HeMo-/HaeMo- Gk HaiMa = blood DaMem = bleeds Gk HyMen = membrane (that bleeds when punctured) ?aDoM = red compare earth (below) and Gk erythrós = red ?aDaM = Adam, man, mankind Latin HoMo = man, HuMman; but compare Gk DeMos = people, population ?aDaMah = ground, earth = Latin HuMus ~ Gk cHaMaí = on the ground DiMooY = image Latin iMaGinem < imago=a copy, likeness DoNaG = (bees)wax OE HuNiG = honey DVoRah = bee OE HyF = (bee)hive [maybe] DaG = fish OE HaCa = hake DaG = fish MD HoK = hook, angle; OHG hako=hook DaGaR = hatch ME HaCchen; ~ MHG hecken = to hatch DuR = circle, Talmudic: rim Gk HáLos = circle, halo DaG < *DHaG and Gk iCH-THi = fish are reversals of each other. 3 - Both 1 and 2 occur, creating synonyms where 2 seemingly different words have the same meaning. Example: SHaD = breast This word has the older letters but the newer sound. Compare [T]Chad (an area south of Lybia < LeV = heart, south of the Gulf of Sidra = SHiDRa = spine, backbone on an anthropomorphic body-part map of north Africa. DaD = breast This word has the newer letters but the older sound. Compare teat/tit; titer/titrate (drop by drop). 4 - It is well-documented that "Rashi" script was adopted by printers as a convenient method to make a clear visual distinction between Talmudic text and later commentary, especially that of Rashi. But the script is *not* an arbitrary design. If the shape of a Rashi letter significantly differs from the standard script, the change represents an ancient difference in pronunciation. The pronunciation elicited by the Rashi script is OLDER. In other words, it is as though the printers used an older script to represent newer writings simply because the older script was (at that time) still recognizable/readable and sufficiently "different" to accomplish their goal. The Rashi script may have been used by descendents of Jews who were not taken to Babylonia. 5 - Stan Tenen of the Meru Foundation also believes the Rashi script is older than the Meruba Ashuris. His analysis is based on letter-shapes generated by images of the hand and not on the analysis of letter- sounds. See: http://www.ottmall.com/mj_ht_arch/v26/mj_v26i01.html#CF By the way, the idea that hand/sign-language preceded written language is not far-fetched. In a hunter-gatherer society, silent hand signals would enable a group to communicate without alerting their prey. American Indians were able to communicate coast-to-coast with a fairly uniform sign language long after their spoken languages had become mutually unintelligible. 6. Based on the ancient sounds suggested above, YH+VH becomes meaningful. dosh kham, Israel Cohen izzy_cohen @ bmc.com

Date: Tue, 14 Jan 2003 15:16:23 -0500 
From: Hayim Sheynin <hsheynin @ gratz.edu> 
Subject: Re: alphabet conference (fwd) => Rashi script

Many points of the discussion below will be absolutely destroyed when the author of the discussion below will learn basic Hebrew paleography. The first Hebrew printers who used Rashi script for the first edition of Rashi commentary on the Pentateuch (completed February 18, 1475) didn't invent the script and didn't fashion it not in compliance with the sounds or with the meaning. This was a Sephardic [i.e. Spanish] handwriting of the 14th to 15th century, which Spanish Jews brought (in the form of manuscripts and in their habit of writing). There is no evidence of Rashi script before 13th century. This beautiful writing is a product of Spain and Spanish Jewish culture close to its final period. The paleographers will rather relate Rashi script (which a Rabbinic sub-type, i.e. semi-cursive) to Sephardic quadrate script than to any other script. Later when the Rashi script was accepted for Rabbinic writings by Ashkenazim it received slightly different shape closer to what is known as Weibertaich (i.e. German type for women). Thus ascribing shapes of Rashi letters to a particular sounds and shapes especially of Devanagari writing is pointless (even we know that some Cabalists ascribed certain meanings to characters). Genetically Hebrew alphabet is close to other Semitic alphabets and it is almost certain about connection of cursive Heh to Arabic ha in the middle position, Hebrew lamed to Syriac and Arabic lam, Hebrew Tsade to Arabic emphatic sad, Hebrew mem to Syriac mim, Hebrew nun to Arabic nun, Hebrew resh to Arabic ra, Hebrew `ayin to Arabic `ayn, and Hebrew taw to Arabic ta. Some time similarity can be demonstrated if one rotates or turns a letter around presupposed axis. Many of these data are known from the books on history of writing systems. There is no historically verified data whatsoever to state that Spanish Jews were not descendants of the Jews who were exiled to Babylon in 586 B.C.E. (even some of the modern scholars made them descendants of the Berbers). Hayim Y. Sheynin

Date: Wed, 15 Jan 2003 16:52:08 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Hebrew volume

This info is from Linguist List: http://linguistlist.org/issues/14/14-125.html LINGUIST List 14.125 Tue Jan 14 2003 Books: Language Description: Izre'el, Mendelson (eds.) Editor for this issue: Marisa Ferrara <marisa @ linguistlist.org> Links to the websites of all LINGUIST's supporting publishers are available at the end of this issue. Directory 1. izreel, Speaking Hebrew: Izre'el, Mendelson (eds.) Message 1: Speaking Hebrew: Izre'el, Mendelson (eds.) Date: Tue, 14 Jan 2003 13:23:47 +0000 From: izreel <izreel @ post.tau.ac.il> Subject: Speaking Hebrew: Izre'el, Mendelson (eds.) Title: Speaking Hebrew Subtitle: Studies in the Spoken Language and in Linguistic Variation in Israel Publication Year: 2002 Publisher: The Chaim Rosenberg School of Jewish Studies Book URL: http://www.tau.ac.il/humanities/semitic/te'udaabstracts.html Availability: Available Editor: Shlomo Izre'el, Tel Aviv University Editor: Margalit Mendelson, Tel Aviv University Hardback: ISBN: NA, Pages: , Price: 50USD Abstract: The subject of this volume being offered to scholars of the Hebrew language and its devotees is spoken Hebrew. Its nucleus is a meeting of scholars that occurred in February 2000 at Emory University in Atlanta (Georgia, USA). Papers were delivered by team members of The Corpus of Spoken Israeli Hebrew (CoSIH) and other scholars invited for this purpose, and questions were discussed pertaining to the compilation and design of the corpus. At the initiative of Yair Hoffman, editor of the Teuda series, other scholars engaged in the research of the Hebrew language were asked to contribute from their research to this volume. These articles, to a large extent, supplement the writings of the CoSIH workshop seminar, because they show from various and diverse aspects the pressing need for compiling a corpus of spoken Israeli Hebrew. TABLE OF CONTENTS * The articles marked with an asterisk are products of the research workshop of The Corpus of Spoken Israeli Hebrew (CoSIH) (Atlanta 2000). These articles will be published in their original, English form in: Benjamin Hary (ed.). Corpus Linguistics and Modern Hebrew: Towards the Compilation of The Corpus of Spoken Israeli Hebrew (CoSIH). Tel-Aviv: Tel-Aviv University, The Chaim Rosenberg School of Jewish Studies. FORWARD by Yair Hoffman, Series Editor PREFACE by Shlomo Izre'el Corpus Linguistics and Computational Linguistics * John Sinclair CORPUS LINGUISTICS: THE STATE OF THE ART * John Sinclair LEXICAL GRAMMAR: A NEW LOOK AT LANGUAGE Shuly Wintner HEBREW COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS: PAST AND FUTURE Language and Society in Israel * Eliezer Ben-Rafael MULTICULTURALISM AND MULTILINGUALISM IN ISRAEL Muhammad Amara HEBREW AMONG THE ARABS IN ISRAEL: SOCIOLINGUISTIC ASPECTS * Otto Jastrow THE CORPUS OF SPOKEN PALESTINIAN ARABIC (COSPA) * Elana Shohamy and Bernard Spolsky FROM MONOLINGUAL TO MULTILINGUAL? EDUCATIONAL LANGUAGE POLICY ISRAEL Linguistic Variation * Yaakov Bentolila LINGUISTIC VARIATION ACROSS GENERATIONS IN ISRAEL Ora (Rodrigue) Schwarzwald LANGUAGE VARIETIES IN CONTEMPORARY HEBREW Zohar Livnat ON LANGUAGE, LAW, AND SOCIAL JUSTICE Spoken Hebrew in Israel and Its Study Moshe Bar-Asher MODERN HEBREW AND ITS CLASSICAL BACKGROUND * Shlomo Izreel THE EMERGENCE OF SPOKEN ISRAELI HEBREW * Shmuel Bolozky PHONOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION IN SPOKEN HEBREW * Geoffrey Khan THE STUDY OF MODERN HEBREW SYNTAX Yael Reshef THE SOCIOLINGUISTIC PHENOMENON OF V FORM IN HEBREW IN THE BRITISH MANDATE PERIOD Ron Kuzar THE SIMPLE IMPERSONAL CONSTRUCTION IN TEXTS REPRESENTED AS COLLOQUIAL HEBREW Esther Borochovsky - Bar Aba BETWEEN SPOKEN AND WRITTEN LANGUAGE: EXAMINING PARALLEL SPOKEN AND WRITTEN TEXT Yitzhak Shlesinger POLARITY IN LANGUAGE LEVELS IN LITERARY TEXTS Tamar Sovran SPOKEN AND POETIC LANGUAGE IN ISRAELI MODERN POETRY Il-Il Yatziv FROM TRANSCRIPTION OF SPOKEN TEXT TO ITS REPRESENTATION ON A GRID SET Toward the compilation of The Corpus of Spoken Israeli Hebrew (CoSIH) * Giora Rahav POPULATION SAMPLING FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A REPRESENTATIVE CORPUS * Benjamin Hary and Shlomo Izreel THE PREPARATORY MODEL OF THE CORPUS OF SPOKEN ISRAELI HEBREW (COSIH) * Regina E. Werum METHODOLOGICAL REMARKS ON CREATING THE CORPUS OF SPOKEN ISRAELI HEBREW (CoSIH) The volume (Hebrew with English abstracts) is available (for $50 including shipment) from: The Chaim Rosenberg School of Jewish Studies Tel-Aviv University POB 39040 IL-61390 Tel Aviv Israel Fax +972-3-640 7031 email: jewishsc @ post.tau.ac.il Lingfield(s): Language Description Subject Language(s): Hebrew (Language Code: HBR) Written In: English (Language Code: ENG)

Date: Wed, 15 Jan 2003 17:36:38 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: searing for Ladino speakers in various countries

Please respond directly to Professor Bernie Rang, El Camino College: fbrang @ aol.com -Sarah ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Mon, 13 Jan 2003 18:39:13 EST From: FBRang @ aol.com To: sbenor @ Stanford.EDU Subject: Ladino Ms. Sarah Bunin Benor I am a Spanish professor at El Camino College in Torrance, California. I am going on sabbatical leave in the Spring of 2004. I want to follow the path of some of the Sephardim that left northern Spain (Gerona) and traveled across the northern rim of the Mediterranean ending their trek in Istanbul, Turkey. I am most interested in contacting Ladino communities in Italy, Rumania, Bulgaria and Turkey (Iran probably is not a good idea at this time). I am most interested in finding written texts if possible. I would like to see if the personal "a" (accusative "a") was ever a part of their Spanish and if not, when it disappeared from use to identify the the direct object (accusative nouns). I have read current texts on Salom from Istanbul as well as a number of collections of poems and folklore stories made available from Bilikent University in Turkey. I have also read a dissertation by Angelica Avcikurt at Hacettepe University ("Non-Regional Variation in Present-Day Judeo-Spanish in Istanbul".) I have yet to encounter any 20th or 21st century use of the personal "a" with the direct object or accusative noun being identified simply by syntax and the logic of the sentence. I am not interested in trying to identify the cause of this phenomenon (unless I stumble on a clear and easy solution) but to identify "when" this happened and if it happened in all the countries across the northern rim. I am sure there have been mulitple influences including French, Italian and Rumanian as well as the Slavic and Turkic language hosts. I am not a Hebrew speaker, nor am I Jewish, but I believe Hebrew does not identify the accusative noun this way either. I would appreciate any ideas, opinions or observations you may have. If you were to have any contacts that I could use in those countries as well, I would really appreciate you putting us into contact with each other. Thanks in advance for your consideration and thoughts. Professor Bernie Rang El Camino College fbrang @ aol.com brang @ elcamino.edu

Date: Thu, 16 Jan 2003 08:11:35 -0600 
From: Cohen, Izzy <izzy_cohen @ bmc.com> 
Subject: Rashi script

Dr. Hayim Y. Sheynin -- A few items were not clear to me. > Many points of the discussion below will be absolutely > destroyed when the author of the discussion below will > learn basic Hebrew paleography. Which points? Were you referring to me [as the author]? > The first Hebrew printers who used Rashi script for the > first edition of Rashi commentary on the Pentateuch > (completed February 18, 1475) didn't invent the script > and didn't fashion it ... Agreed. I maintain that the "Rashi" script is *older* than the Asheris Meruba and that the Italian printers who used it for Talmudic commentaries simply used an existing, recognizable script. > ... not in compliance with the sounds or with the meaning. But I do maintain that there *is* a relationship between the sound and shape of letters. That is, letter shapes are not "arbitrary". For example, the Cyrillic letter for the SH sound was intentionally copied from the Hebrew shin. > This was a Sephardic [i.e. Spanish] handwriting of the 14th > to 15th century, which Spanish Jews brought (in the form of > manuscripts and in their habit of writing). This is commonly known. In Oct 1996, Herb Basser wrote: http://orion.mscc.huji.ac.il/orion/archives/1996b/msg00536.html what is called rashi script is in fact a common ordinary sephardic script for hebrew used by sephardic scribes all through the middle ages. when printers needed to distinguish between the commentary text and the biblical text itself they choose the sepahrdic script type -- which was well known -- sephardic mss were read by northern europeans and vice versa; rashi's was the first commentary [printed in this script so the script] became known as rashi ... > There is no evidence of Rashi script before 13th century. With this I cannot agree. Stan Tenen maintains that the script of the Elephantine papyrus (approx 300 BCE) is closer in style to the so-called Rashi script than to the Asheris meruba script. And I maintain that the Rashi aleph and shin (in particular) represent the older sound of letters whose sound had changed long before the 13th century. > Thus ascribing shapes of Rashi letters to a particular sounds > and shapes especially of Devanagari writing is pointless Did anyone relate Rashi letters to Davanagari, a script used for Sanskrit, Hindi and other Indian languages? However, when a Rashi aleph resembles a (current) het, that indicates the aleph may have had a het-like sound. And when a Rashi shin resembles a (current) tet [rotated 90 deg clockwise], that indicates the shin may have had a dental D/T sound. I maintain there is independent linguistic evidence to corroborate a GHT/CHS -> T -> glottal stop sound change for the aleph, and a D/T -> SH sound change for the shin. > There is no historically verified data whatsoever to state that > Spanish Jews were not descendants of the Jews who were exiled > to Babylon in 586 B.C.E. I did not say anything about the genealogy of Spanish Jews. A Rashi-like script could have been taken to Spain by the descendents of Jews who were or were not exiled in Babylon. dosh kham, Israel Cohen izzy_cohen&bmc.com

Date: Thu, 16 Jan 2003 09:41:29 -0500 
From: rdhoberman @ notes.cc.sunysb.edu 
Subject: Re: Rashi script

Izzy Cohen wrote, "However, when a Rashi aleph resembles a (current) het, that indicates the aleph may have had a het-like sound. And when a Rashi shin resembles a (current) tet [rotated 90 deg clockwise], that indicates the shin may have had a dental D/T sound." The sounds represented by alef and Het (the Middle-Eastern, pharyngeal Het), are indeed similar: they're both produced in the throat, without any involvement of the organs of the mouth (tongue, palate, teeth, etc.). The sounds of shin and Tet are similar, both produced with the front part of the tongue. This is no mystery, it is obvious to anyone with a knowledge of elementary phonetics, and it has nothing to do with the shapes of the letters. What the sounds of alef and Het have in common they share with &ayin and he, and what shin and Tet have in common they share with tav. Anyone who wants to see an alphabet in which the shapes of the letters really do correlate with the articulation of the sounds they represent should look at a chart of the Korean alphabet, called "Hangul". It is the only one in the world that has such systematic correlations. Bob ___________________________________________ Robert Hoberman Professor of Linguistics and Judaic and Middle Eastern Studies Department of Linguistics Stony Brook University Stony Brook, NY 11794-4376

Date: Mon, 20 Jan 2003 10:32:16 -0500 
From: Hayim Sheynin <hsheynin @ gratz.edu> 
Subject: Re: doven-ing, another Just-So-Story by izzy (humor)

Dear Izzy: Don't you think that the words 'bear' (verb) and the noun 'bear' are the products of homonymy (tsimudim, or lashon nofel al lashon in Hebrew), because the origin of the first one in Indo-European from the words having general meaning 'to carry', while the second one in origin refers to 'brown' (color). So bear-ing and DOVeN-ing could not be parallel in etymology. There were many attempts to find etymology of davnen. I didn't find any of them to be sufficient. What it comes to my mind now, that it can be imitative formation to express monotonous and repetitious speech accompanied with frequent shaking or noding. Dr. Hayim Y. Sheynin Adjunct Professor of Jewish Literature Head of Reference Services Gratz College 7605 Old York Rd. Melrose Park, PA 19027

Date: Mon, 20 Jan 2003 10:54:12 -0500 
From: Hayim Sheynin <hsheynin @ gratz.edu> 
Subject: Re: doven-ing, another Just-So-Story by izzy (humor)

I just replied the same to a different set of addresses. I apologize if someone will get this second time. Izzy, You can with the same success to state that it comes from English DOVe (the bird of peace), because the Jews are constantly pray for peace (shalom), but this is of course a joke. Don't you think that the words 'bear' (verb) and the noun 'bear' are the products of homonymy (tsimudim, or lashon nofel al lashon in Hebrew), because the origin of the first one in Indo-European languages is from the words having general meaning 'to carry', while the second one in origin refers to 'brown' (color). So bear-ing and DOVeN-ing could not be parallel in etymology. There were many attempts to find etymology of davnen. I didn't find any of them to be sufficient. What it comes to my mind now, that it can be imitative formation to express monotonous and repetitious speech accompanied with frequent shaking or noding. Also the word 'nave' as an architectural detail is most probably homonym of 'nave' (from Lat. 'navis' ship. It is akin to navel. Thus 'navigare' doen't have anything in common with bear-ing or daven-ing. Best wishes, Dr. Hayim Y. Sheynin Adjunct Professor of Jewish Literature Head of Reference Services Gratz College 7605 Old York Rd. Melrose Park, PA 19027

Date: Mon, 20 Jan 2003 10:22:04 -0600 
From: Cohen, Izzy <izzy_cohen @ bmc.com> 
Subject: Re: doven-ing, another Just-So-Story by izzy (humor)

Hayim Sheynin [mailto:hsheynin @ gratz.edu] wrote: >> Don't you think that the words 'bear' (verb) and the noun 'bear' are the products of homonymy (tsimudim, or lashon nofel al lashon in Hebrew), because the origin of the first one in Indo-European from the words having general meaning 'to carry', while the second one in origin refers to 'brown' (color). So bear-ing and DOVeN-ing could not be parallel in etymology. There were many attempts to find etymology of davnen. I didn't find any of them to be sufficient. What it comes to my mind now, that it can be imitative formation to express monotonous and repetitious speech accompanied with frequent shaking or noding. >> Dear Dr. Sheynin -- I agree that bear (to carry) and bear (the brown animal) are homonyms in English. And "davening" has nothing to do with carrying a load or with the color brown. It also has nothing to do with the sound "bear". But, it may have something to do with bears-in-the-sky, the constellations Ursa major and Ursa minor (which includes the North star), and with the process of determining one's orientation. I suspect the same semantics that accounts for bear (the animal) --> (getting one's) bearings [in English] may account for Hebrew DoV --> Yiddish davening. Although the Yiddish word for bear is BeR, the meaning of Hebrew DoV would be well-known to Yiddish-speakers. dosh kham, izzy izzy_cohen @ bmc.com

Date: Mon, 20 Jan 2003 13:09:30 -0500 
From: K I Weiser <kweiser @ yorku.ca> 
Subject: Re: doven-ing, another Just-So-Story by izzy (humor)

I am no expert on the etymology of davenen or linguistics but I would like to remind you that doven (as opposed to daven) is a minority pronunciation in Yiddish and, if I am not mistaken, used chiefly in the tote-mome-loshn dialect (e.g. Podolia, Rumania) region. Kalman Weiser

Date: Mon, 20 Jan 2003 11:15:13 -0800 
From: Yona Sabar <sabar @ humnet.ucla.edu> 
Subject: Re: doven-ing, another Just-So-Story by izzy (humor)

Dear Hayyim, Talking about homophones, which one do you have in mind by "Jews are constantly pray for peace"? It seems that no matter how much we pray for peace, we are still a prey of war... Hag MeLeK sameaH, Yona

Date: Mon, 20 Jan 2003 21:54:49 +0200 
From: Gideon Goldenberg <msgidgol @ mscc.huji.ac.il> 
Subject: amusement on the web

Our discussion forums have become a real source of amusement, with reflexes of word-games once popular among Hebrew-speaking children, like Al tedovev et ha-dov Al texattel et he-xatul Al tesalleq et ha-seleq Al tek(h)ofef et ha-qof Al te&orer et ha-&ir Al tekhapper &al ha-kfar etc. etc. Such refreshing humour disguised as etymology can rejuvenate grown-up scholars. And I greatly admire Hayim Sheynin's hyper-delicate responses, trying to bring us back to solid scholarship without offending anyone. Yours, GG

Date: Mon, 20 Jan 2003 15:30:24 -0500 
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu> 
Subject: Re: doven-ing, another Just-So-Story by izzy (humor)

A bare bear boar her cubs (born by the bourne), and, bearing them, yawned utterly bored near the boar; all upon a Carrollesque game board. These examples of punning lie at very the base of so much Jewish exegesis, that it can be difficult to distinguish between contemporary methodologies. I see the pun, an isolated phonosyntactic string used for another, as an event of controlled and deliberate generation in a synchronic environment. Aliterate or preterliterate speech groups are perfectly able to interpret such strings; indeed, are able to use them to the end of investigation (e.g., a "folk" etymology). These strings are apt to analysis since, in the acartesian coordination of language, they are perceived as concrete linguistic entities, still endowed with contrastive and structural differences. (Plato's Cratylus, Lyon's dilemma of "mean"). A midrashic or kabbalistic pun certainly attempts to extract and associate meaning from similarity [but also from dissimilation]. Underneath, however, we are left with a string as an arbitrary signifier, and the punner is, to some extent, aware of this. I would like to ask George what constitutes the pun in Chinese, particularly, is difference of tone {\ _ / -}admissible?

Date: Mon, 20 Jan 2003 20:05:14 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Dictionary (fwd)

Please respond directly to Teddy. -Sarah ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Mon, 20 Jan 2003 10:12:04 -0800 From: Teddy1945 <teddy1945 @ cyberhotline.com> To: editor @ jewish-languages.org Subject: Dictionary Hi, I am trying to find an old Yiddish/Polish dictionary, it was published in Warsaw before the war and one was published in Tel-Aviv in the 1950's by "Nowiny i Kurier". I would appreciate any help in the above matter. I thank you in advance and hope to hear from you soon. Sincerely, Teddy

Date: Tue, 21 Jan 2003 01:04:43 -0600 
From: Cohen, Izzy <izzy_cohen @ bmc.com> 
Subject: puns => Job 19:20 => homonyms

Seth sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu wrote: > A bare bear boar her cubs (born by the bourne), and, bearing them, > yawned utterly bored near the boar; all upon a Carrollesque game > board. > ... I see the pun, an isolated phonosyntactic string used for > another, as an event of controlled and deliberate generation > in a synchronic environment. Aliterate or preterliterate speech > groups are perfectly able to interpret such strings; indeed, > are able to use them to the end of investigation (e.g., a "folk" > etymology). These strings are apt to analysis since, in the > acartesian coordination of language, they are perceived as > concrete linguistic entities, still endowed with contrastive > and structural differences. (Plato's Cratylus, Lyon's dilemma > of "mean"). A midrashic or kabbalistic pun certainly attempts > to extract and associate meaning from similarity [but also > from dissimilation]. Underneath, however, we are left with > a string as an arbitrary signifier, and the punner is, to > some extent, aware of this. I would like to ask George what > constitutes the pun in Chinese, particularly, is difference > of tone {\ _ / -}admissible? That is the most succinct analysis of the concept of punning that I have ever seen. Job 19:20 -- An Ancient Hebrew Pun ? ==================================== Representing aiyin by 3, I presume B'3oR SHiNai = by the skin of my teeth [Job 19:20] is a euphemism for B'QoSHi = barely, hardly, with difficulty. [The aiyin would have had a velar G/K sound, as in 3aZa = Gaza). Is there any other explanation for why this (generally) agreed-upon meaning is given to this phrase? Incidently, the English translation of this phrase is widely understood by native English speakers even though few of them know its origin. The closest analogue I could find in English is: SCaNT = barely enough --> SKiN of (my) Teeth For scant, Random House online does include the meaning: 7. Dial. scarcely; barely; hardly. Homonyms ======== Someone asked: > "what does 'lumber' (planks of wood) have > to do with 'lumber' (to move slowly, ponderously) ?" Peter Grey [correctly] said: > Firstly, a word that has two different meanings may well > be two separate words that have ended up with the same form. > ... for example "cleave" = split, and cling to. It may be interesting, however, to examine some of the reasons why this occurs. Reason 1: Genuine (cognitive) metaphor, a la George Lakoff. Using "lumber" as the example: "Trunk of tree" is to "lumber" as "Trunk of body" is to "lumbar". So, thinking of one may cause you to think of the other. According to Lakoff, the body-term probably came first. Reason 2: In some *other* language, two (or more) different meanings are based on (near) homonyms. When speakers of that language become speakers of *your* language, they take the translation of one of those homonyms in your language and use that word for all the meanings it had in their native language. This may explain why the Hebrew sound MiSHPaT means both "a gramatical sentence" and "the sentence (verdict) pronounced by a judge". Or, viewed from the other direction, why the English sound "sentence" has both of those meanings. Or why Hebrew BaD = cloth, fabric; BaDaH = myth, fiction; BaDa?i = liar results in English fabric = cloth and to fabricate a (false) story. He made it up out of whole cloth. There's not a stitch of truth in it. The children's yarn "The Emperor's New Clothes" is based on this idea. Hebrew ZaLiL = sound (tone) and sound (deep, dive, sink --> submarine). The sound of English "sound" has the same two meanings: sound (audible) and sound the depths, Puget Sound, = to dive, as a whale. Reason 3: A foreign word is simply borrowed into your language with its original meaning, but its sound is similar to an existing word in your language. This process may be closest to Peter's explanation (above). For example: Face the music = consequences. Music = melody, tune, song already existed. Music = consequences was probably borrowed into English from Yiddish MaSKoNe mem-samekh-kuf-nun-aleph < Hebrew mem-samekh-kuf-nun-heh MaSKaNaH = conclusion, inference, deduction MSKNH --> MuSiC Why should this phrase enter American English at about 1850? Probably the result of German-Jewish immigration to the States... which preceded Eastern European Jewish immigration to the USA by about 50 years. Reason 4: Simple parallel derivation from homonyms in a precursor language. Example: Latin anima/animus --> English animated/animosity. But compare Hebrew Roo'aX = spirit and (its reversal) XaRon (aF) = anger. English swipe (swab/sweep) = stroke of a wiper and swipe = to steal. Izzy thinks this word is a het-W parallel to Hebrew samekh-het-vet SaXaV, which has the same two meanings. But compare Hebrew NaGaV = to wipe and (its anagram/metathesis) GaNaV = to steal. If you haven't become completely bored by now, let's lumber back to the original question. Hebrew shin-aiyin-mem-mem = boring, dull, ponderous; Now, compare bored and board (of wood). Next, compare board (of wood) and board (of directors). In Hebrew, board (of directors) is Mo3eTZeT. It contains aiyin-tzadi 3eTZ = wood. American Indians use a "talking stick" at council meetings. See http://www.councilfire.com/israel.htm The Hebrew word for committee is Va3aD. This sounds quite like the the English word WooD pronounced by a native speaker of German. Would you derive Vatican from Va3aD KoHaNim = committee of priests? :-) If you are asleep by now, you might be ZZZzzz... sawing wood. dosh kham Israel Cohen izzy_cohen @ bmc.com

Date: Sun, 19 Jan 2003 08:00:03 -0600 
From: Cohen, Izzy <izzy_cohen @ bmc.com> 
Subject: doven-ing, another Just-So-Story by izzy (humor)

DoVeN-ing ========= An essential element of [Yinglish] DoVeN-ing = "(congregational) praying" is the requirement to face in the direction of Jerusalem. The nave of older Western churches usually was oriented towards Jerusalem. Compare navigate. Random House online contains: orient 9. to place so as to face the east, esp. to build (a church) with the chief altar to the east and the chief entrance to the west. Likewise, Muslims face Mecca when praying. Bear with me and I'll try to explain the connection between DoVeN-ing and facing the right direction. The two stars that form the pouring edge of the bowl of the Big Dipper [Ursa Major = big bear] point to ... Polaris 1. the polestar or North Star ... in the constellation Ursa Minor [Little Bear]: the outermost star in the handle of the Little Dipper. This explains why, in English, the process of determining the direction you face is called "getting one's bearings". bearings 9. a horizontal direction expressed in degrees east or west of ... north ... The Hebrew word for bear is DoV. Hence, DoVen-ing. izzy, the tail-bearer izzy_cohen @ bmc.com

Date: Wed, 22 Jan 2003 16:22:30 -0500 
From: George Jochnowitz <jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu> 
Subject: bare facts

Haverim, Fair is foul and fowl is fare (see Macbeth, Act 1, scene 1). Why does a French person eat only one egg for breakfast? Because one egg is an _oeuf_. Why does an Israeli family eat only one chicken at dinner? Because one chicken is an _of_. Which came first, the chicken or the egg? Georges (Gershon)

Date: Wed, 22 Jan 2003 16:36:33 -0500 
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu> 
Subject: Re: bare facts

If foul is fare, can a chicken get you on the subway? Sj

Date: Wed, 22 Jan 2003 15:49:14 -0500 
From: George Jochnowitz <jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu> 
Subject: orientation and puns

Haverim, It is true that to get one's bearings is to orient oneself. Most Jews face east when davening--even if we live in Eastern Europe, where facing Jerusalem means facing south. In the Orient, however, things are different. In the Hong Kong synagogue, one faces west, which is the correct orientation. I heard very little punning in China. In 1984, however, people used to say about Prime Minister Hu Yaobang, "When Hu speaks (Hu shuo), it's nonsense (hushuo). The tones were the same. So are the written characters. The meaning of the surname Hu is 'westerner'. Westerners, who speak Altaic languages, were understood as speaking _hushuo_. I assume that the 1984 pun did not reflect public opinion about Hu. Five years later, when Hu Yaobang died, students attending the memorial service in Beijing did not leave Tiananmen Square when the service was over. That was the start of Beijing Spring, which ended with the Tiananmen Massacre. By the way, the word for 'beard' is _huzi_, since people from the west of China may have beards. My own nickname in Chinese was _da huzi_ (big beard), although most people called me Lao Qiao. The word for 'four' in Chinese is _si_ (4th tone). The word for 'death' is _si_ (3rd tone). Many people consider the number 4 unlucky. The word for 'daddy' in Chinese is _baba_ (4th tone + zero tone). The word for 'eight' is _ba_ (1st tone). Father's Day in Taiwan is August 8th, 8/8. I don't know whether I've answered Seth's question. George (Lao Qiao)

Date: Thu, 23 Jan 2003 08:10:36 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: etymology of daven

While these folk etymologies and puns are fun, here's a question about real etymology. I've seen several ideas about the etymology of "daven," and none of them has satisfied me. I came up with my own idea a few years ago when I was working on a paper about Hebrew-origin verbs in Yiddish. I'd love to get (serious) feedback on this idea: In my paper, I explore non-periphrastic Hebrew-origin verbs in Yiddish, such as the following: Yiddish verb - Hebrew root 1. Kaysn ('to anger') - k.'.s. 2. Darshe(ne)n ('to preach') - d.r.sh. 3. Gazlen ('to plunder') - g.z.l. 4. Barkhe(ne)n ('to escape') - b.r.h. 5. Paske(ne)n ('to decide') - p.s.k. 6. Akhlen ('to eat') - '.k.l. 7. Zarkenen ('to throw') - z.r.q. 8. Harge(ne)n ('to kill') - h.r.g. I argue that these verbs are derived from Hebrew verbal material but are borrowed in an agentive nominal form, formed on analogy with agentives like *darshan*. (If anyone would like to see the paper, let me know.) Examples: 1. darshenen (Yid. 'to preach') < darshan (Heb./Yid. 'preacher') + -en (Yid. verbal morpheme) 3. gazlen (Yid. 'to plunder') < gazlan (Heb./Yid. 'robber') [-en is analyzed as the verbal morpheme] 2. hargenen (Yid. 'to murder') < *hargan (unattested but would be Heb. 'murderer') + -en (Yid. verbal morpheme) I realized that *davenen* has the same form as many of these verbs. It could very well come from the Hebrew root d.b.b, ('speak, whisper' [which is what one does while praying]) which would be davav in the present tense (like darash, harag). The agentive form of this would be davvan (which would become daban), but let's assume that the borrowers used the form davan. The resulting Yiddish verb would be davenen. Sarah Bunin Benor Stanford University Department of Linguistics

Date: Thu, 23 Jan 2003 11:32:26 -0500 
From: Sholem Berger <sholemberger @ hotmail.com> 
Subject: Re: etymology of daven

Your suggestion seems very interesting, but I have some layperson's questions. Of the pairs you cite, which are in fact attested in Hebrew/Loshn-Kodesh besides those you mention specifically (darshan, gazlan)? I am not familiar with barkhan, paskan, akhlan, or zarkan -- and in any case wouldn't the agentive form have to be in relatively common use for this borrowing to occur? Or do linguists hold that such borrowing-on-a-model can occur even if no analogous forms actually exist in the source language? As for "d.b.b." and "daven", aside from my question above (which also holds for d.b.b. -- i.e. is there an attested agentive "davavan"?), wouldn't one like to know if "d.b.b." is attested in Loshn-Kodesh in reference to prayer? The most frequent LK reference I'm aware of that makes use of "d.b.b." is a proverb from Tanach -- "the lips of scholars whisper", but this is usually used to praise those who teach in the name of their own teachers. Sholem Berger

Date: Thu, 23 Jan 2003 11:48:18 -0500 
From: Uri Horesh <urih @ babel.ling.upenn.edu> 
Subject: Re: etymology of daven

Sarah, d.b.b. in the CaCCan template would probably not become daban (or more accurately, dabban), but rather davvan, rather like taxxan. In Modern Hebrew, tha latter is pronounced [taxexan], as if there is a schwa mobile between the two x's. However, the first consonant in this template has a patax, not a kamac, which is usually indicative that the syllable structure is tax.xan 'one who instigates intrigues', not *ta.x(e)xan. However, it's spelled with two "kaf"s, neither with a dagesh. I know I'm missing something here. Perhaps a more senior Semiticist (e.g., Gideon Goldenberg), could shed some light on this. At any rate, that might explain why Yiddish davenen has a /v/, not a /b/. And an anecdote to conclude: Modern Hebrew has "gazlan", penultimate stress, as something equivalent to the food trucks we have here in Philly. The folk etymology for that is that these trucks originally popped up outside of army bases (and later schools and other public places) offering food at much higher prices than the military cantines, thus "stealing" the soldiers' precious funds, although their services were/are often more elaborate and at more flexible hours than the aforementioned cantines. Uri ----------------------------------------------------------------- Uri Horesh Graduate Student Department of Linguistics University of Pennsylvania 619 Williams Hall Philadelphia PA 19104-6305 E-mail: urih @ babel.ling.upenn.edu http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~urih/home http://www.penndivest.org -----------------------------------------------------------------

Date: Thu, 23 Jan 2003 11:24:24 -0600 
From: Cohen, Izzy <izzy_cohen @ bmc.com> 
Subject: Re: etymology of daven

As Sarah B. B. indicates, Hebrew dalet-bet-bet is associated with meanings such as: "to move gently (of lips)" "cause to speak" More interestingly, according to Compendious (Grossman/Segal), the meaning of DoVa:V during the Medieval period (Responsa) was "to pray". QED ? A more standard term for "to whisper" is Hebrew lamed-het-shin. It also means "to utter an incantation". In modern times, a LaXSHaN is a theatrical prompter. Reversing L-X-SH to SH-X-L, then giving the shin a dental D-sound, the het a pre-Latin V-sound (as in LeXeM = VL *levamen -> leavened bread), and the final L an N-sound (as in lymph/nymph, Lo? = "no") produces D-V-N, as in davenen. I prefer Sarah's solution. izzy_cohen @ bmc.com

Date: Thu, 23 Jan 2003 19:46:04 +0200 
From: David Grossman <davidg @ macam.ac.il> 
Subject: Re: etymology of daven

I moderate an active e-mail forum called Davening. It discusses issues and practices relating to Jewish prayers. Some time ago we discussed the meaning of the term on that group. Bottom line: nobody really knows. Any suggestions are based on mere speculation. This seems to be the topic on many lists at this time - probably because of Izzy Cohen's cute posting. David Grossman

Date: Thu, 23 Jan 2003 20:48:16 +0200 
From: Gideon Goldenberg <msgidgol @ mscc.huji.ac.il> 
Subject: Re: etymology of daven

It is probably impossible to state with certainty the origin of davenen / dovenen, but the etymology mentioned by Sarah Bunin Benor is the only one which reasonably makes a structural and historical sense. The pattern qatlan/qotlan is in many cases indifferent to the verbal binyan with which it seems to be derivationally connected; cf. gazlan/gozlan as against sarbhan/sorbhan. Mishnaic traditions seem to prefer the third radical spirantized. Such forms are also derived from mediae geminatae and are not uncommon in Later Hebrew, like bareran, xasheshan, hasesan, xobhebhan. The most natural form derived from d.b.b. according to this pattern should be dobhebhan (or dabhebhan), phonetically actualized dov(e)van/dav(e)van, whence in Ashkenaz doven/daven, the base of doven-en/daven-en. Hebrew forms and vocables in Yiddish that have never been used in Hebrew context are well known. The meaning certainly fits. Gideon Goldenberg.

Date: Thu, 23 Jan 2003 11:04:00 -0800 
From: Yona Sabar <sabar @ humnet.ucla.edu> 
Subject:: Re: etymology of daven

Sara, It is possible to have a new form (davenen) without an actual base (davevan), but in analogy to other such verbs with real base (like darshan, etc.); cf. Israeli Hebrew tizmen "to synchronize, to time", in analogy to tizmer "to orchestrate" < tizmoret "orchestra", etc. Also, I remember reading some where that davenen seems to be an old Latin substratum "divination" (whispering). Yona Sabar

Date: Thu, 23 Jan 2003 14:47:26 -0500 
From: Hayim Sheynin <hsheynin @ gratz.edu> 
Subject: Re: etymology of daven

Sarah, My sense of intuition in Hebrew whispers that you are on the right truck. The supporting argument: The root D.B.B. was used in the noun DeVeV in the meaning 'expression', locution' and in the meaning 'prayer' already in the early medieval times: examples: 1. Devev piw patuah be-sha'arah matuah (Yannai); 2. Athin be-hin lahashon, divevi mi-la'ashon (Kalir) 3. Devev-sefatay we-qol tahanunay shim'ah ve-ha'azinah (Sifrut ha-piyyutim) See Otsar ha-lashon ha-`Ivrit, me-et Yaaqov Knaani, v.2, p. 535, col. 2. Hayim

Date: Thu, 23 Jan 2003 14:53:21 -0500 
From: Paul Glasser <pglasser @ yivo.cjh.org> 
Subject: Re: etymology of daven

A few random comments on the "davnen" series: 1) I believe that Sara Benor's proposed etymology has already come up before, but I don't have a reference handy. If I find one, I'll be sure to share it. Yes, I would like to see the paper about Hebrew-origin verbs entering Yiddish through agentives, which makes a lot of sense. 2) However, some corrections (I think): a) I don't know of a verb "kaysn" 'to anger', just the agentive "kaysn" 'someone quick to anger'. Uriel Weinreich has "kaasn zikh" 'to be angry'; likewise Harkavy. Of course, that doesn't weaken Sara's argument. > b) The statement "The agentive form of this would be davvan (which > would become daban), but let's assume that the borrowers used the form > davan." That bothers me. Yiddish reflexes generally (although not always) > reflect the presence or absence of Hebrew dagesh. On what grounds do we > assume that there was a form "davan"? And is any agentive attested? Not > that the lack of an attestation would be a fatal blow - cf. "hargenen" - > but I would be much happier if there were one. Particularly since there is > no Yiddish agentive *(der) davn, davonim, like "shadkhn, shadkhonim" (and > verb "shadkhenen (zikh)"), as per Sholem Berger's question. I now see that Uri Horesh has addressed the matter of the dagesh. That would lead one to expect *daveven. Again, this is not a fatal flaw, based on the phenomenon of haplology, but I still think it needs to be addressed. 3) Viz. Yona Sabar's suggestion of "divination": that etymology, or a related one, French "office/service divin," has arisen more than once and has not been proved convincingly. See, for example, Solomon A. Birnbaum, "A Refutation of All the Etymologies Proposed for Yiddish dav(e)nen," Jewish Language Review 5 (1985), 169-172. 4) Gideon Goldenberg mentions both "davenen" and "dovenen." While both forms do exist in Yiddish, the latter form is a minority form, as Kalmen Weiser has noted. Moreover, it is definitely an internal Yiddish innovation. Thus, the only form directly traceable to Hebrew must be "davenen." P.(H.)G. Dr. Paul (Hershl) Glasser Associate Dean, Max Weinreich Center Senior Research Associate, Yiddish Language 212-246-6080 X6139 (ph) 212-292-1892 (fax) mailto:pglasser @ yivo.cjh.org YIVO Institute for Jewish Research 15 West 16 Street New York, New York 10011 http://www.yivo.org

Date: Thu, 23 Jan 2003 15:49:52 -0500 
From: Hayim Sheynin <hsheynin @ gratz.edu> 
Subject: Re: etymology of daven

Concerning the patax and shwa mobile (shwa na`) in the following syllable, I noticed that in Hebrew, both in the Bible and in modern language there are a number of similar cases. In the Bible in most of this cases the patax is marked with meteg which shows that this patax still maintains its long (or prolongated) status (like qamats). The function of the shwa in this position is to divide the syllables (See Gesenius-Kautzsch-Cowley, Hebrew Grammar, 2nd. ed., 1910, p. 51-52, #10) In this grammar an explanation of Sievers is quoted, that "the fact that the following Begadkefat letter remains spirant instead of taking Dagesh lene, is explained by Sievers on the supposition that the change from hard to spirant is older than the elision of vowel ..." Although I doubt this explanation on the base of phonetic structure of North Semitic languages which did not pass the process of spirantization (Canaanic dialects, Ugaritic, Phoenician and Assyrian), I do not have a better explanation. However it is understood that in such position especially in Radices mediae geminatae, the both consonants of such forms as davevan (cp. qalelan 'one who uses to curse'). The vowel in the first syllable of qalelan is also patax. One can increase the number of examples.

Date: Thu, 23 Jan 2003 16:10:38 -0500 
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu> 
Subject:: Re: etymology of daven

Whence the modern Italian "indovinare" (to guess), as well as "dovinare" (= to prophecy, to predict; in literary texts from the 13th and 14th centuries, such as Memoriali bolognesi (1279-1300), and as a noun ("dovini" = soothsayers, seers) in the 1325 Abruzzese poem "Fiorita" by Armannino giudice da Bologna; Alternating with devino, devinare). The incunabula editions of the [Christian] Italian Bible give for Jeremiah 28.9 "Lo profeta il quale ha dovinato pace" (Vulgate: propheta qui vaticinatus est pacem; Hebrew: ha-navi' aser yinnavi' le-salom). (taken from "La Bibbia volgare secondo la rara edizione del 1 Ottobre 1471." ed. Carlo Negroni. Commissione per i testi di lingua. Bologna : Romagnoli, 1885 [based on ed. Venice : Adam di Ambergau, 1 October 1471; however, check Malermi editio princeps, Venice : 1 August 1471]; contrast reading in Judeo-Italian translation of MS Parma Palatina 3068: Lu prufeto che serà prufetezato a paçe (lû p.rûp`eyTô qey seyrah p.rûpeyTeyza'Tô 'ah pa'$ey [where T= tet, p` = feh, $=tsadey, . = shwah nah]). Judeo-French (Glossaire de Bâle): devinayle (= divination) Micah 3.6: MKSM (Parma = "visiuna") Daniel 5.12: 'HYDN (= riddle, enigma; cfr. It. "indovinello", riddle) Psalms 49.5 HYDTY e devinayles Numbers 22.7: WQSMYM devinont devinera (act. part. + fut. 2 sing) Genesis 44.15: NHS YNHS deviney (past 1 sing.) Genesis 30.27: NHSTY (also gives "sorteyey" =I told a fortune) e devinons (act. part. pl.) Isaiah 44.25: WQSMYM From Latin: divino , avi, atum, 1, v. a. [divinus, II. A.] , to foresee, divine; also, to foretell, predict, prophesy (class. cf. vaticino, praedico): non equidem hoc divinavi, Cic. Att. 16, 8 fin. : ut nihil boni divinet animus, Liv. 3, 67 ; cf.: quod mens sua sponte divinat, id. 26, 41 ; and: animo non divinante futura, Ov. Tr. 4, 8, 29 : immortalitatem alicui, Plin. 7, 55, 56, § 188 : permulta collecta sunt ab Antipatro, quae mirabiliter a Socrate divinata sunt, Cic. Div. 1, 54, 123 ; cf.: divinatae opes, Ov. Nux, 80 .--With acc. and inf.: neque ego ea, quae facta sunt, divinabam futura, Cic. Fam. 6, 1, 5 ; so id. de Sen. 4 fin.; id. Rep. 2, 5; id. Quint. 19; Liv. 4, 2 et saep.--With rel. clause: divinare, quid in castris obvenisset, Liv. 8, 23 ; so id. 40, 36; 41, 24.--Absol.: Venus faciat eam, ut divinaret, Plaut. Mil. 4, 6, 42 ; so Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 74; Cic. Div. 1, 3; 5; 6 et saep.; Hor. S. 2, 5, 60; Ov. M. 11, 694; id. Tr. 1, 9, 52 al.: si de exitu divinaret, Nep. Ages. 6, 1 : quaestum praestare divinando, Vulg. Act. 16, 16 . Synonymous with: 1: propheto 2: proloquor 3: documentum 4: profor 5: effugio. The passage from divino > divìno > dovino (pretonic i > o), if I'm not mistaken, is a dissimilation. In French documents: adavineur, adavinier (1352; see Du Cange: ¶DIVINUM > 1.DIVINUS (v. 2 p. 891) In English (OED): a. F. devine-r (12th c.) to recount, signify, wish, prophesy, ad. L. dvnre to foretell, predict, after devin divine. If the alternation of the pretonic (and secondary arhyzotonic) from palatal to velar vowel (DI-VÌ, DÍ-VI-NÀ-RE) can be established for medieval Latin/Romance, how do we more concretely link the semantic passage into "recitation of tefillot"? Sj

Date: Thu, 23 Jan 2003 16:06:25 -0500 
From: Paul Glasser <pglasser @ yivo.cjh.org> 
Subject: Re: etymology of daven

Not just the "semantic passage. "Let's keep the "geographic passage" in mind as well - as far as I know, "davenen" is an Eastern Yiddish word only; the Western Yiddish word is "orn" (< Latin "orare"). P.(H.)G.

Date: Thu, 23 Jan 2003 16:40:36 -0500 
From: Paul Glasser <pglasser @ yivo.cjh.org> 
Subject: Re: etymology of daven

You're right. However, what I think weakens your argument is that there is a sizable number of Romance-origin words that survive in Western Yiddish only; I don't know of a single one that survives in Eastern Yiddish only. (If I'm mistaken, I look forward to being corrected.) P.(H.)G.

Date: Thu, 23 Jan 2003 16:47:02 -0500 
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu> 
Subject: Re: etymology of daven

True, but it should be remembered that diachronic periphery and isolation often allow condtions favorable to the conservation of what are otherwise obscure/obsolete/non-current/ forms and varieties in the areas of origin, such as Iberian type construct com+edo, while more French and Italian types are from manduco; also Sardinian: conservation of velars; "ibba" (<EQUAM) while elsewhere <CABALLU/AM (very stereotyped examples; nontheless applicable). Sj

Date: Thu, 23 Jan 2003 17:14:27 -0500 
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu> 
Subject: Re: etymology of daven

Although of [potential] Latin origin, the route may not have been through Romance but ecclesiastic. Although, unless there is something more concrete/documented, it needs a heck of a lot more support (how did this become popular? how would an eastern European populace spread latin? Is the term originally derogatory, implying that Church Latin, and Hebrew Prayer, were a magical mumbo-jumbo? was the route socially "vertical", rather than horizontal, and if so, when and where do we find it first attested? Could it be that an illuminist Pole, rejecting religion á la Voltaire, came up with the term? Would it have found so much popularity that the Jews adopted this in a positive sense? Or could Haskalah Jews have used it in reference to Orthodox prayers, on the same model as this hypothetical illuminist?) In other words, yes, there are well attested Romance forms to corroborate a phonological relation, but not much more.

Date: Fri, 24 Jan 2003 11:49:42 -0500 
From: Hayim Sheynin <hsheynin @ gratz.edu> 
Subject: Re: etymology of daven

Dear all, I should confess in the front of all Jewish language researchers in my great sin. I am a lover of Latin, from its golden period (Vergilius, Ovidius, Horatius, Cicero, Caesar) up to Lingua Latina viva. Moreover, I am a lover of Latin etymologies in all the languages when it occurs (e.g. Arab. siyasa 'politics, policy, diplomacy, government' > (Eng. society, French societe) from Lat. societas, -atis; or Heb. otobus from Latinized form autobus > Greek autos (self) + Lat. iflectional suffix -ibus (like in omnibus, rebus) Saying all this, I do not understand why one will continue to discuss the etymology of the Yiddish word daven from Latin divinare, if it is found that the verb Davav was used in the early medieval Hebrew, precisely in the meaning "to pray" and in the form of abstract name (segolate formation based on *qatl / *qitl pro-form) Devev / Devava (prayer, praying), registered participium praes. act. Dovev and possibility of pattern C[patax]C[shewa]C[suffix -an] davevan (parallel to bareran, shixexan, chasheshan, laqeqan, qalelan) as nomen agentis. I think now that in the light of all these facts the most probable etymology for Yiddish dav[en]en and its derivative, a verbal noun daven-ing (Germanic suffix -ung / -ing), is established. It would be nice to find in what earliest Yiddish text this word occurs and check the early usages. If they occur in context close to Hebrew testimonia, this even better. Another contributing fact that Latin borrowings in Yiddish occured (albet not often) in Western Yiddish, while davenen is registred only in Eastern Yiddish. Following this discussion, I reconsider my opinion "that it can be imitative formation to express monotonous and repetitious speech accompanied with frequent shaking or noding." By the way the last opinion was based on the parallel formation in Russian Taldychit' with the pejorative meaning 'to express monotonous and repetitious speech', imitating ta-ta-ta or da-da-da and the nomen agentis taldyka ('one who taldychit'). An additional lesson I learned that not all etnic and religious groups relate to prayer the same way, even Boccaccio like Russians laughed on too zealous piety or use of religion to cover worldly sins. Hayim Sheynin

Date: Sat, 25 Jan 2003 06:08:33 +0000 
From: Ghil`ad ZUCKERMANN <gz208 @ cam.ac.uk> 
Subject: Re: etymology of daven

Dear colleagues, Thank you very much for the perspicacious insights. Please do not forget to consider the possiblity that Yiddish DAVENEN can well be a *multisourced neologism* - just as Israeli DIBUV (or DIVUV) "dubbing" is based simultaneously on English DUBBING and on (Medieval) Hebrew DIBBUV "speech" - from d.b.b. of all roots :-) . Warmest wishes, Ghil`ad *********************** Dr G. Zuckermann Churchill College University of Cambridge www.zuckermann.org *********************** "Be an optimist (at least until they start moving animals in pairs to Cape Kennedy)"

Date: Sun, 26 Jan 2003 12:36:42 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Origins of Schonk (fwd)

I could not think of any possible origins in Yiddish. Any ideas? Please respond to Kay and/or me and/or the list. -Sarah ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Sun, 26 Jan 2003 10:53:28 +0000 From: kay roberg <kayroberg @ hotmail.com> To: editor @ jewish-languages.org Subject: Origins of Schonk 25th January 2002 Sarah Bunin Benor Editor 2002 Jewish Language Research Website Dear Sarah, I am a librarian at the London School of Jewish Studies in the United Kingdom. Last week I had a query which I wonder if you could shed light on or advise me where I might find further resources. I have detailed below the whole correspondence for you to see. Originally I thought that the word was English/Australian slang but having spoken to other people it seems the word has yiddish origins. I would love to hear your comments on this matter. Thanking you for your help Kayla Roberg kayroberg @ hotmail.com Dear Kayla Shonk = nose (as I thought). The quotation is ... "Simmons [an 11-year old East Londoner from a Council School] wagged his head sagely. Then, suddenly pointing an accusing finger almost in Kosminski's eye, he cried: 'But I forgot. It's no use talkin' to you. You're a German yourself!' 'I ain't! said Kosminski fiercely. 'No,' said Nash, turning on him suddenly. 'You're a schonk ; that's what you are. I knew you was a schonk the very first time I see you.' Not being able to deny this reference to an Hebraic descent, which was obvious to the most unobserving, Kosminski relapsed into silence." from : "Nash and Some Others" by C.S. Evans (William Heinemann, 1913) There is a hidden irony here (unintended?) since Simmons is an English-sounding name that often has a Jewish origin. (Symons, Simm onds, Simmons, etc.) Hope this explains my interest. The fact that this is a text from 1913 explains the mild put-down of Kosminski ... a year later, as WWI began, the persecutions of foreigners in the East End would take a nastier turn. Regards Dear John, I think I have found the defintion you are looking for. It is an Australian slang word and I've found it two slang dictionaries. It is spelt without the c. just shonk. From what I understand shonk is an Australian word for a dishonest person or a person dealing in dishonest, not straight practices and in slang it refers spefically to a Jew. (The stereotype of the Jew being dishonest, swindler is perhaps the connotation here) If it is spelt with a c it then becomes a dutch word to give a gift originally derived from the german schenken. This does not fit in with slang word you are looking for. shonk taken from noun a dishonest person; a swindler or con artist. [? from shonk, offensive name for a Jewish person - This is the definition from the Macquarie Dictionary. THE MACQUARIE DICTIONARY Since it was first published in 1981, the Macquarie Dictionary has become firmly established as the record of Australian English. Many smaller and specialised dictionaries, as well as thesauruses and other reference works have contributed to Macquarie's reputation as Australia's leading language reference publisher. http://www.macquariedictionary.com.au/p/dictionary/slang-s.html The Probert Encyclopaedia Slang (S) on this websitehttp://www.probertencyclopaedia.com/ZS.HTM defines shonk as SHONK Shonk is british slang for the nose. Shonk is derogatory slang for a Jew. SHONKY Shonky is slang for Jewish. Shonky is Australian slang for unreliable, dishonest. Shonky is Australian slang for someone engaged in irregular or illegal business activities Regards Kayla Roberg London School of Jewish Studies - Library Schaller House, Albert Road, Hendon, London, NW4 2SJ Tel: 0208 203 6427 email: kayroberg @ hotmail.com I was just looking at email I sent you and noticed definition from The Probert Encyclopaedia - and this would be stereotypical slang for Jew with a long nose SHONK Shonk is british slang for the nose. - Regards Kayla Dear John, I spoke to a Jewish taxi driver who has interest in this area and he said the one thing that doesn't make sense is how it came from Australia to Britain at that period. He still thinks its the English slang word for nose and the originally konk which he rembembers being used in his school days. The sh part of this word he said might be a connotation to shylock and therefore the word together makes shonk. but the only other way is that during that period Jewish men and women convicts were sent to australia and came back to Britain and thats how the word got overseas. He also thinks it has a Yiddish/jewish sound to it This query is certainly facinating - I'll keep you posted if I come across anything else Regards Kayla

Date: Sun, 26 Jan 2003 16:01:24 -0500 
From: Lewis H. Glinert <lewis.h.glinert @ dartmouth.edu> 
Subject: shonk

Can't help on the Yiddish, but on Jewish convicts being sent to Australia see Todd Endelman's riproaring The Jews of Georgian England -- and as for convicts coming back, you need look no further than David Copperfield. About the jewish connotations of the sh- prefix, I daresay Anglo-Jewish 'shnozzle' is an example. Lewis Glinert

Date: Mon, 27 Jan 2003 01:15:40 -0600 
From: Cohen, Izzy <izzy_cohen @ bmc.com> 
Subject: Re: Origins of Schonk <= shnook ?

Sarah -- Try Yiddish shin-nun-vav(oo)-kuf SHNooK = (elephant) trunk; snout. Both of those meanings (I think) easly shift to "nose", even though the elephant's trunk is anatomically a lip. Compare Hebrew het-dalet-kuf XaDaK-haPiL = elephant trunk. Treating het as X=KS, as it was in contact with Latin, KSDK may have metathesized to SKDK -> scnk ? For a similar het -> sc metathesis, compare Hebrew YaRa:aX = moon -> KRKS -> Latin cresc- -> English increase, decrease, crescendo, crescent (moon-shape), croissant (moon- shape pastry). The moon is the growing-est thing in the sky. Also, compare English snooker 2. Slang. to deceive, cheat, or dupe: snookered by a con man. [1885-90; orig. uncert.] Israel Cohen izzy_cohen @ bmc.com

Date: Mon, 27 Jan 2003 22:05:33 -0500 
From: dls38 @ cornell.edu 
Subject:dovevanim lemineihem.Re: etymology of daven (fwd)

A friend's thoughts... ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Fri, 24 Jan 2003 20:46:07 +0000 From: daniel kennemer <knnmr @ hotmail.com> To: dls38 @ cornell.edu, sbenor @ stanford.edu Subject: dovevanim lemineihem.Re: etymology of daven An interesting idea and enjoyable read. I still prefer the Turkish root for davenen, as seen in the modern turkish "dua" = prayer. a khazarian-turkish studies person claimed to know of a form "daunmak", (-mak being the turkish infitinitive suffix.), i.e. "to daun"... and in turkish a v can often appear or dissapear in this situation, such as "tavuk" for chicken, pronounced "ta-uk". "davun-mak"? the Hebrew explanation seems problematic, as the agentive form of d.v.v would more likely be "dovevan", much as het.v.v becomes "hovevan", ("amateur"), and not "havvan" nor "haban". Further, D.v.v, like het.v.v, has several "dovev" forms attested. For instance, two pi'el verbs exist, "dovev" and "dibev", much like the double pi'el of het.v.v: "hovev" and "hibev". This in addition to the questionable link between d.v.v and prayer, as it would seem to hint that the person praying is merely mouthing the words, without really thinking, and we all know that isn't the case! ;) Someone described as a "dovevan", in modern hebrew at least, would probably be understood as being even further removed, as "ledovev (mishehu)" means "to get (someone) to talk", as in interrogations or other situations involving reluctant conversation. (The cheyder melamed in this case?)

Date: Fri, 31 Jan 2003 13:30:53 -0500 
From: George Jochnowitz <jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu> 
Subject: Turkish daven

Haverim, I heard some years ago that the word "yarmulke" comes from Turkish. Does anybody know anything about this? It would fit in with a Turkish etymology for "davenen." I heard just today that "pastrami" was borrowed by Romanian from Turkish. I had previously thought it was the other way around. Happy Rosh Hodesh Adar I, which, as always, begins on the evening of Chinese New Year. (In years with only one Adar, Chinese New Year may coincide with Rosh Hodesh Shvat.) George

Date: Fri, 31 Jan 2003 13:55:38 -0500 
From: Paul Glasser <pglasser @ yivo.cjh.org> 
Subject: Re: Turkish daven

I'm not an expert on Turkish by any means, but the etymology I've always seen is "yagmurluk," which the Turkish dictionary I consulted translated 'raincoat'. I'm not sure how you get from raincoat to skullcap, but that's what I know. I see that in Jewish Language Review 7 (1987), 200-201, Bohdan A. Struminsky proposed a different etymology, Latin "almunicum" 'church canon's cap', once again via Polish. As far as pastrami is concerned, I've always seen Rumanian pastrami < Turkish bastirma. That's all I know. P.(H.)G. Dr. Paul (Hershl) Glasser Associate Dean, Max Weinreich Center Senior Research Associate, Yiddish Language 212-246-6080 X6139 (ph) 212-292-1892 (fax) mailto:pglasser @ yivo.cjh.org YIVO Institute for Jewish Research 15 West 16 Street New York, New York 10011 http://www.yivo.org

February 2003

Date: Sat, 1 Feb 2003 21:03:06 -0500 
From: rdhoberman@notes.cc.sunysb.edu 
Subject: Re: Turkish daven

I don't have the relevant books handy, but I think yagmurluk was said to mean also something like 'a canopy', which would get a little closer to an umbrella-shaped yarmlke. Yagmur is 'rain' and -luk just means something like 'a thing for ___'. As for the pronunciation of yagmurluk, the letter g is silent and makes the preceding /a/ long. There are a number of other Turkish (and other Middle Eastern) words in Yiddish, including nahit (=arbes 'chickpeas'), and prakes and others that I can't think of at the moment. I'd guess that many of them exist in Balkan languages or Ukrainian. Bob ___________________________________________ Robert Hoberman Professor of Linguistics and Judaic Studies Stony Brook University Stony Brook, NY 11794-4376 631-632-7462, 632-4585 631-632-9789 (fax)

Date: Mon, 3 Feb 2003 10:20:56 -0500 
From: Paul Glasser <pglasser @ yivo.cjh.org> 
Subject: Re: Turkish daven

Dear Bob, Thanks! Your explanation makes the Turkish theory a lot more palatable. I was actually aware of other Turkish/Middle Eastern words in Yiddish. For obvious reasons, most, if not all, must have entered Yiddish through Ukrainian. One further example that comes to mind: "kavene/kovene" 'watermelon', which Ukrainian borrowed from Turkish ("kavun," right?) and which apparently entered Turkish from some Far Eastern source. But I think I'm thousands of miles too far afield... P.(H.)G. Dr. Paul (Hershl) Glasser Associate Dean, Max Weinreich Center Senior Research Associate, Yiddish Language 212-246-6080 X6139 (ph) 212-292-1892 (fax) mailto:pglasser @ yivo.cjh.org YIVO Institute for Jewish Research 15 West 16 Street New York, New York 10011 http://www.yivo.org

Date: Mon, 3 Feb 2003 12:34:49 -0500 
From: Edward Weiss <sw @ weiss.net> 
Subject: Introduction

Hello all, I've just subscribed to this mailing list, so let me go ahead and tell you a bit about myself. My name is Ed Weiss, and I'm an undergraduate student at the University of Toronto, majoring in linguistics. Based on some recent observations, I thought it might be an interesting idea to research the relationship between Canadian Raising and the peculiar (to me, at least, being a native New Yorker!) pronunciation of Jewish (e.g. Hebrew or Yiddish) words among the Orthodox community of the Toronto area. Case in point: I've heard 'box' pronounced as /baks/, but 'lox' as /l^ks/. I'd be interested in hearing from anyone who's familiar with this phenomenon, as I'm looking to begin a research project in the near future and any input would be most helpful. Take care, Ed

Date: Mon, 3 Feb 2003 12:45:55 -0500 
From: George Jochnowitz <jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu> 
Subject: a lox theory

Dear Ed, Dear Haverim, In Canadian English, where there is no cot-caught distinction, the words "box" and "hawks" would rhyme. Perhaps the eccentric pronunciation of "lox" is an attempt to indicate that one isn't saying *lauks. George

Date: Mon, 3 Feb 2003 15:48:25 -0500 
From: George Jochnowitz <jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu> 
Subject: Re: a lox theory

My parents, speakers of Central Yiddish, made no disctinction between shwa and /I/. Thus, shabes was /shabIs/. Daven was usually /davn/, but davnen was /davInIn/. It is my impression--just an impression--that Central Yiddish speakers are a higher percetnage of Canadian Yiddish speakers than they are of American Yiddish speakers. George

Date: Mon, 3 Feb 2003 12:48:33 -0600 
From: Cohen, Izzy <izzy_cohen @ bmc.com> 
Subject: a lox/box theory

In "The Joys of Yiddish", Leo Rosten writes: A beggar mooched half a dollar and raced into a delicatessen for a bagel and lox. The donor followed him in and said. "I didn't give you money to throw away on luxuries!" The beggar replied: "When I'm broke, I can't afford lox. When I have money, you tell me not to spend it on lox. So tell me, Mr. Philosopher, when can I eat lox?" Lox appears in the Talmud as lamed-khaf-yod-samekh LaKHiS, borrowed from Greek, but perhaps equivalent to Hebrew aleph-lamed-taf-yod-saf ?iLTiS = salmon when the aleph had a GHT/CHS sound. [see kelt below] For a similar aleph = Greek X = CHS parallel, compare Hebrew bet-aleph BaCHS = come, come in with Gk Bacchus, the god of wine and fertility, and with English (female body part) "box". While we are on this topic, English tw_t is probably derived from Hebrew TaVaH = (not a body part) box or container. In Genesis, this word is used for Noah's ark, a slow-moving TuB, as in rub-a-dub-dub. I suspect this not-anatomical box was used as a euphemism for the anatomical box until it, too, became a TaBoo word. izzy_cohen @ bmc.com gravlax (gräv'läks) n. boned salmon cured in sugar, salt, pepper, and dill. [1960-65; < Sw gravlax, Norw gravlaks = grav- (cf. Sw grava, Norw grave = to dig, bury; see GRAVE 3) + lax, laks = salmon; see LOX 1; the salmon was orig. cured by burying it] grilse (grils) n. pl. <grils-es> (esp. collectively) <grilse> an Atlantic salmon on its first return from the sea to fresh water. [1375-1425; late ME grills, grilles (pl.), of obscure orig.] kelt (kelt) n. a salmon that has spawned. [1300-50; ME (north), of unknown orig.]

Date: Mon, 3 Feb 2003 16:13:06 -0500 
From: George Jochnowitz <jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu> 
Subject: lox

Haverim, I am told that one of the definitions of the Sanskrit word laksha is "reddish-pink resin." There probably are no salmon in the waters near India. The word for "salmon" in the Talmud is no doubt an Indo-Europeanism. However, Joseph Greenberg had much to say about the ancestry of Indo-European and Afro-Asiatic (Hamito-Semitic). George

Date: Mon, 3 Feb 2003 13:14:10 -0500 
From: Edward Weiss <sw @ weiss.net> 
Subject: Re: a lox theory

George, That's an interesting theory, and one that I'll definitely have to look into further. The funny thing is, when I ask speakers to say 'locks,' I hear /laks/, so it definitely seems like something in the semantics of 'lox' is causing the effect. Other examples I've heard are 'Shabbos' = /s^bIs/ (sorry, can't figure out how to do a schwa), and 'daven' = /d^vIn/. Thanks for the input! I'll update the list with any future findings. Ed

Date: Mon, 3 Feb 2003 17:56:26 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: lox

In response to Ed's question: (using ^ for wedge and @ for schwa) I'm very interested to hear what you eventually find in your research. In my research on Orthodox Jewish English in the US, I've found that speakers often pronounce the "komets" /o/ vowel in Hebrew/Yiddish loan words as [^]. This is true in words of Hebrew/Aramaic origin (g@mor@ 'Talmud' => g@m^r^, losh@n hor@ 'evil tongue, gossip' => l^sh@n h^r^, hashkof@ 'outlook' => hashk^f^), as well as other Yiddish words (vox 'week' => v^x). So I'm not surprised to hear that this vowel is common in Canadian Jewish English, but I am surprised to hear that it is the realization of the Yiddish [a] vowel, rather than [o]. I doubt that there is a large enough tote-mome-loshn contingent in Toronto to have an impact on words like Shabes, daven, and laks... -Sarah Bunin Benor Stanford University

Date: Mon, 3 Feb 2003 20:26:04 -0500 
From: Hayim Sheynin <hsheynin @ gratz.edu> 
Subject: Re: Turkish daven

There are a lot of Turkish words and also Arabic words that came through medium of Turkish to Yiddish and other languages of the region from Southern Poland to the Eastern Ukraine, not to speak about Balkans and Crimea. They are so many that it is not possible to count them on fingers of both hands. Most of them belong to agricultural terminology, including names of fruits, vegetables and construction materials, as well as organization of the government and the army, particularly words for cavalry equipment. It is not only kavun, but also harbuz, kabak, baklajan, abrikos, cheprak, cholka, chub, chubchik, karbovanec, uzda, kosht, tabun, divan, firman, kirpichi, arba (carriage), sultan, sharvari, ottomanka, nuga, baklava, vazir, pasha, mukhtar, vilayet, yasak, bazaar and many, many more. I am sure there are special works on Turkish and Arabic loan words if not in Yiddish, for sure in Russian, Ukrainian, Polish, Romanian and Bulgarian. The majority of the same words penetrated Yiddish. Of course one would expect that Balkan languages will include more borrowings than other languages north of Turkey, because the former had longer contact with the Ottoman Empire. In some languages of the region (like in Romanian) they borrowed even Turkish suffix of Plural (Turk. -lar-/-ler-), see Romanian for Evreilor. Hayim ============= Dr. Hayim Y. Sheynin Adjunct Professor of Jewish Literature Head of Reference Services Gratz College 7605 Old York Rd. Melrose Park, PA 19027

Date: Tue, 4 Feb 2003 10:08:28 -0500 
From: Paul Glasser <pglasser @ yivo.cjh.org> 
Subject: Re: Turkish kavun, etc.

Thanks. I'd like to read more on the subject, if anyone can recommend bibliography. One point: it might make sense to distinguish words that are peculiar to Eastern Europe, like kavun, from those that have spread far further, like bazaar or sultan. And let's not forget that these Turkish words were often borrowed by Turkish as well, from Arabic, Persian, etc. P.(H.)G.

Date: Tue, 11 Feb 2003 00:44:42 -0800 
From: Yona Sabar <sabar @ humnet.ucla.edu> 
Subject: Branja

I didn't find it either in my Weinreich Yiddish dictionary, but according to Dan-Ben-Amotz's Hebrew slang dictionary (vol. 2, p. 59): branja or brancha (!) < Yiddish = "branch, kind of occupation": hu eHad ha-spetsim ba-brancha shelo = He is an expert in his area. I am not convinced about this. I never heard brancha, and the meaning known to me is more 'elite'. Any other explanations? Yona Sabar Date: Mon, 10 Feb 2003 21:40:32 -0500 From: Anna Urowitz-Freudenstein <hjmod @ oise.utoronto.ca> Subject: Query: Branja (Schwarcz) From: Ida & Joseph Schwarcz <idayosef @ barak-online.net> Subject: Query: Branja A recent article in the Jerusalem Post used the word "branja" and translated it as "a Yiddishism meaning clique." The word is also used in Yoram Hazony's "The Jewish State" to mean elite. I have never heard this word in my Yiddish speaking family. What is its oritin? Ida Selavan Schwarcz Dr. Ida Selavan Schwarcz Dr. Joseph M. Schwarcz Arad, IL-89053 Israel

Date: Tue, 11 Feb 2003 10:33:00 +0000 
From: gennady.estraikh <gennady.estraikh @ ntlworld.com> 
Subject: Re: Branja

'branzhe' is a word known to the bulk of Yiddish speakers. For instance, Abraham Karpinowitz, a contemporary Tel Aviv-based Yiddish writer, employs it virtually in all his stories, particularly if they are set in Vilna. Alexander Harkavy's dictionary translates it as 'line (of commerce)'. It stems from Polish - 'branza' (it has a diacritic that I cannot reproduce). In Ukrainian, too, "branzha" - 'branch (of business); profession, occupation'. Apparently, all these words (and the English 'branch') have the same Latin ancestor. Gennady Estraikh

Date: Thu, 20 Feb 2003 10:53:02 -0500 
From: Uri Horesh <urih @ babel.ling.upenn.edu> 
Subject: Announcing NWAVE32 in Philadelphia

** PLEASE DISTRIBUTE WIDELY - APOLOGIES FOR MULTIPLE POSTINGS ** The 32nd annual meeting of NWAVE will be held in Philadelphia at the University of Pennsylvania from October 9th to 12th, 2003. The theme of the meeting is LANGUAGE HISTORY AND LANGUAGE CONTACT. For more information and the Call for Papers, see the NWAVE32 web site: http://www.ling.upenn.edu/NWAVE Looking forward to seeing you all in Philadelphia in the fall, THE NWAVE COMMITTEE

Date: Thu, 27 Feb 2003 09:40:21 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: call for papers - Israeli Association for the Study of Language and Society

Israeli Association for the Study of Language and Society In partnership with the Institute for Development in Education, Hebrew University Second Call for Papers and Sessions for the Annual Conference of the Association A Multi-Cultural Discourse in a Multi-Crisis Society Sunday June 15, 2003 at the Holyland Hotel, Jerusalem We encourage and appreciate early registration IALS cordially invites researchers and interested parties from all fields related to the study of language and society to attend and participate in its second national conference that will be held in Jerusalem on June 15, 2003.. The topics include: language and identity; language and education; language and mass communication; language policy; language and immigration; language preservation; language and social stratification; language and gender; language and conflict; cultural contact and language contact; processes of language acquisition; language and ideology, and many other subjects. - The conference is open to all members of the association who have paid the membership registration fee which includes participation in the conference - The registration form for the association and the form for papers and sessions proposals are enclosed - The registration form and membership fee for the association are to be sent via regular mail to the institute for social research at the following address: The Institute for social research Department of Sociology and Anthropology Tel Aviv University Tel Aviv 69978 - Abstracts and papers are to be sent (as attachments) to the e-mail address of the association: ials @ post.tau.ac.il or, by regular mail, to the institute for social research - Information regarding the association and the conference in Jerusalem is available in the association's internet site: www.tau.ac.il/~ials Important Dates: Deadline for abstract and session proposals: March 31, 2003 The annual conference of the association: June 15, 2003 Deadline for registration to the association for those participating in the conference: May 5, 2003 Abstracts and Papers can be submitted in either English or Hebrew Preliminary Conference Program Plenary Sessions Israeli Political Discourse and the Communications Discourse in Times of Crises Organizers: Prof. Shoshana Blum-Kulka and Prof. Tamar Liebes (Hebrew University) Language Policy in Israel Organizers: Prof. Bernard Spolsky (Bar-Ilan University) and Prof. Elana Shohamy (Tel Aviv University) Sessions Preliminary Listing 1) English in Israeli Academia - Chair: Carol Troen (Ben-Gurion University) 2) Sites supporting development and research of learning in Institutions of Higher Education - Chair: Shoshan Brosh-Weitz (Tel Aviv University and the Interdisciplinary Center in Herzliya) 3) Judesmo: Contacts between Jews and Turks - Chair: David Bunis (Hebrew University) 4) Reported Speech and Quotations in the Vernacular and in the Israeli Media - Chair: Haim Noy (Hebrew University) 5) Ways of analyzing linguistic register: A developmental perspective - Chairs: Ruth Berman and Dorit Ravid (Tel Aviv University) 6) Building Meaning from Misunderstandings - Chair: Liora Weinbach (Tel Aviv University) 7) Migration and linguistic erosion- Organizers: Elite Olshtain, Anat Stavans, Bella Kotik (Hebrew University) 8) 'The Muses are Silent': Sociolinguistic aspects of silencing the representations of the "other" in Israeli Discourse - Chair: Haim Noy (Hebrew University) 9) The Impact of intra family Marriage (blood ties) on Reading Disabilities in the Arab Community - Chair: Salim Abu-Rabia (Haifa University) 10) The Study of Discourse and Rhetoric - Chair: Roselyne Koren (Bar-Ilan University) 11) Language and Ideology in Textbooks - Chair: Nurit Peled-Elhanan (Hebrew University) 12) The Word, the Picture, and What is Inbetween - Chair: Esther Schely-Newman (Hebrew University) 13) A Meeting of Languages and Cultures: Hebrew and Arabic in Israel - Chair: Muhammad Amara (Bar-Ilan University) 14) Multi-Lingual Students and Issues of Word Acquisition - Chair: Marsha Bensoussan (Haifa University) 15) Acquiring Words in a Second Tongue: The Impact of the Type of Task and the Relevance of Words - Chair: Batia Laufer (Haifa University) 16) Male and Female Discourses: Differentiating and Unifying Strategies - Chair: Joseph Chetrit (Haifa University) 17) The Media Discourse in an Age of Multi-Crisis - Chair: Esther Schely-Newman (Hebrew University) 18) Language among Children - Chair: Nurit Peled-Elhanan (Hebrew University) 19) Written and Spoken Language - Chair: Esther Borochovsky Bar-Aba (Tel Aviv University) 20) Language and Bridging - Chair: Liora Weinbach (Tel Aviv University) 21) Language and Globalization: Penetration of English into the Languages of the World - Chairs: Judith Rosenhouse (Technion) and Rotem Kowner (Haifa University) 22) Language, Multi-Culturalism and Education - Chair: Devorah Kalekin-Fishman (Haifa University) 23) Jewish Languages - Chair: Yaacov Bentolila (Ben-Gurion University) Organizers of the Jerusalem Conference: Professor Elite Olshtain Hebrew University, Jerusalem E-mail: mselito @ huji.ac.il Professor Shoshana Blum-Kulka Hebrew University, Jerusalem E-mail: mskcusb @ mscc.huji.ac.il

March 2003

Date: Tue, 11 Mar 2003 12:14:27 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Call for Papers 2003

See below the call for papers for the Association for Jewish Studies. Proposals are due in a month, so let's start thinking about panels we might want to organize. Thanks to Lewis Glinert (lewis.glinert @ dartmouth.edu), this year's themes for the linguistics category are particularly interesting: 19. Linguistics, Semiotics, and Philology Linguistic, semiotic, or philological studies of Hebrew, Yiddish and other Jewish languages; papers on the teaching of these languages 2003 Themes/Topics: • Circumstances of Jewish Language Shifts • The History of the Study of Jewish Languages • Discourse Analysis of Jewish Languages • Pedagogy of Jewish Languages in Social and Cultural Context • Marginal Jewish Languages and their Communities • Jewish Languages among non-Jewish Populations ------ -Sarah Bunin Benor ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Mon, 10 Mar 2003 12:23:12 -0500 From: Association for Jewish Studies <ajs @ brandeis.edu> Subject: Call for Papers 2003; AJS Review 26:2 Dear Friends, This is to advise you that the 2003 Call for Papers is en route to you. Domestic US members will be receiving the full printed brochure; non-US members will receive a post card announcement. The full brochure is also available on our web site: http://www.brandeis.edu/ajs/Call%20for%20Papers%202003.pdf for download and printing. The web-based proposal module is now available and will be open until April 10 at 5 PM EDT. Full information about meals, hotel, etc. is also to be found on our web site. Please be sure to follow the online instructions that will guide you through the proposal submission process. We look forward to receiving your proposals and to seeing you at the Sheraton Boston in December. Paid-up members should by now have received their copy of AJS Review 26:2. If you have not yet renewed for 2002-3, please be advised that we plan to do a second mailing in mid-April to those who renew either online or by check to the AJS office prior to April 10. Yours, Aaron ************************************************************** Association for Jewish Studies Lawrence H. Schiffman, Ph.D., President Aaron L. Katchen, Ph.D., Executive Director MS 011 email: ajs @ brandeis.edu Brandeis University Voice: (781) 736-2981 P.O. Box 549110 FAX: (781) 736-2982 Waltham, MA 02454-9110 http://www.brandeis.edu/ajs **************************************************************

Date: Tue, 11 Mar 2003 13:18:02 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: translation software

This is from Michal Held <msmheld @ mscc.huji.ac.il>. Please respond to her or Matilda Cohen-Sarano. ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Tue, 11 Mar 2003 22:35:30 +0200 To: jewish-languages-owner @ lists.stanford.edu Subject: translation software Shalom to all, I'm writing on behalf of Matilda Cohen-Sarano who is working on a compilation of a Ladino-Hebrew dictionary. In order to simplify the technical work involved in the project, we are searching for a computerized tool that enables one to create a two-directional list of words in alphabetical order (I guess that means a simple dictionary making software.) As the tool must be able to decipher Hebrew as on of the languages, I figured that maybe someone on our list would have come across something that might be of help. Any help will be most appreciated (replies may be sent to me at this address or to Matilda at paz3 @ internet-zahav.net) Toda Raba and keep up your good work, Michal Held The Center for the Study of Jewish Languages and Literatures The Hebrew University

Date: Thu, 13 Mar 2003 09:24:22 +0100 
From: Marion Aptroot <aptroot @ phil-fak.uni-duesseldorf.de> 
Subject: Sixth Symposium for Yiddish Studies in Germany, September 2003

Sixth Symposium for Yiddish Studies in Germany Trier, 22-24 September 2003 The Sixth Symposium for Yiddish Studies in Germany will be held September 22-24 at University of Trier. This annual Yiddish Sym-posium is organized alternately by the Yiddish programs at the universities of Trier and Duesseldorf and is intended to offer students and scholars the possibility to present their research, exchange ideas and put forward questions for discussion. You are invited to submit abstracts for 20 min. papers until June 1, 2003. Presentations can be held in Yiddish or German. As usual, we have decided not to devote the symposium to a single topic in order not to exclude any of the fields of research within Yiddish Studies. Interdisciplinary papers with a connection to Yiddish Studies are welcome. The symposium is open to all those interested in Yiddish Studies. There is no conference fee. We do ask participants to register as soon as possible at the address below. Regularly updated information can be found under: http://www.uni-trier.de/uni/fb2/germanistik/jidd_start.html We are also happy to answer questions by mail, fax or e-mail. Simon Neuberg and Marion Aptroot Prof. Dr. Marion Aptroot Institut fuer Juedische Studien Abt. fuer Jiddische Kultur, Sprache und Literatur Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf Prof. Dr. Simon Neuberg FB II / Jiddistik Universitaet Trier Correspondence address: Universitaet Trier FBII / Jiddistik 54286 Trier Fax: 0651-201-3909 e-mail: jiddisch @ uni-trier.de

Date: Tue, 18 Mar 2003 09:03:48 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: clicks

There was a message posted on Linguist List about paralinguistic clicks, and I'm posting it here. I'm also posting my response to the sender - about clicks in Israeli Hebrew and Orthodox Jewish English in America. If others have responses about other languages, please direct them to the sender and to this list. -Sarah Date: Mon, 17 Mar 2003 08:13:20 +0000 From: Mark Jones <paralinguistic_clicks @ hotmail.com> Subject: Paralinguistic clicks Dear Linguists, it's common in the phonetic literature (e.g. John Laver (1994) ''Principles of Phonetics'': 175, Cambridge University Press) to see click consonants (velaric ingressive sounds) described as rare as contrastive units, but common paralinguistically. I'm aware of their phonological distribution, but I don't know of any detailed survey of paralinguistic usage. In (British) English we have two paralinguistic clicks: the dental click ([/]), written as either ''tut'' or ''tsk'', and the lateral click ([//]), which as far as I'm aware has no written form. The dental ''tut/tsk'' usually occurs doubled, i.e. as ''tut tut'' or ''tsk tsk'' to indicate disapproval. The lateral click (also doubled) is the sound made to encourage a horse to move. There is, of course, also the bilabial click ([0]) which is a kiss. I don't include this as paralinguistic, because it is what it symbolises. I'd like to conduct as wide a cross-linguistic survey as possible to determine: 1) whether clicks are widely used paralinguistically; 2) which clicks are used paralinguistically; 3) what the click sounds symbolise; 4) whether 'doubling' of the click is common, e.g. as in English ''tut tut''. I'd also like to hear about writing conventions for the paralinguistic clicks. Does English have a preference for ''tut'' or ''tsk'', does [//] have a written form? What do other languages do? I'd be very grateful if list users would contribute any information on their native or near-native languages to me at the following mail address (set up to keep my university mail volume down): paralinguistic_clicks @ hotmail.com I'll post a summary, but I'd like to give users a few weeks to respond. Many thanks! Mark Jones Department of Linguistics University of Cambridge mjj13 @ cam.ac.uk ----------------------------------------------- My resposne: Hello. I'm interested in this topic, and I look forward to hearing what you find. One issue: I thought the "tsk" click in English was alveloar, rather than dental. There are 2 clicks in Modern Israeli Hebrew: one meaning 'no' (alveolar with lip rounding) and one used as a hesitation marker with slight negative affect (alveloar with no lip rounding). The hesitation click has been borrowed by Orthodox Jewish English in America, likely through contact among the young people (when they spend time studying in Israel). I don't know how these clicks are represented orthographically. There is little metalinguistic discussion of them, although they are quite common in informal speech. -Sarah Bunin Benor Stanford University

Date: Tue, 18 Mar 2003 12:23:57 -0500 
From: George Jochnowitz <jochnowitz @ postbox.csi.cuny.edu> 
Subject: paralinguistic inventory

In addition to paralinguistic clicks, English has a paralinguistic /h/ that can occur before syllabic nasals, as in *hmm* and *mm-hmm*. There is also a paralinguistic glottal stop, most notably in *uh-oh*. When I was in France 20 and 40 years ago, there was an unvoiced [i] used by women in the word *oui*. I did not hear this sound when I visited France in 2000. Perhaps it has dropped out of the paralinguistic inventory. There must be examples in other languages of paralinguistic sounds that are used only by men or by women. George Jochnowitz

Date: Tue, 18 Mar 2003 12:32:16 -0500 
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu> 
Subject: Re: paralinguistic inventory

Also, the English forms "yup" and "nope" show a parallel bilabial stop. Italian has a paralinguistic alveolar click, used for negation, and as far as I can tell, either as a negative response to a question, or to negate a positive declarative statement. Seth Jerchower ************************************************* Seth Jerchower Public Services Librarian Center for Advanced Judaic Studies Library University of Pennsylvania 420 Walnut Street Philadelphia, PA 19106 Tel: (215) 238-1290, ext. 203 Fax: (215) 238-1540 sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu http://www.library.upenn.edu/cajs/ *************************************************

Date: Tue, 18 Mar 2003 13:42:35 -0500 
From: Erez M Levon <eml246 @ nyu.edu> 
Subject: Paralinguistic clicks (follow-up)

Though I've never worked on this myself, I know that discussions of paralinguistic clicks have featured prominently in work on African American Vernacular - I think it's a dental click that functions as a discourse marker with varying functional meanings. I've also heard a colleague of mine who's currently doing fieldwork among adolescents in Long Island that a new alveo-palatal click is being used in much the same way. erez

Date: Tue, 18 Mar 2003 13:11:22 -0800 
From: Yona Sabar <sabar @ humnet.ucla.edu> 
Subject: Re: clicks

Spoken Arabic and Neo-Aramaic have /la/ 'no' vs. /la'/ (ending with a glottal stop, hamza) 'emphatic no!'; Neo-Aramaic also has /xa/ 'one', /tre/ 'two' (preceding the counted noun),but /xa'/ /tre'/ (with hamza) when in final position and for emphasis.

Date: Mon, 24 Mar 2003 14:17:20 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: panels for AJS

Hello. Two people have expressed interest in giving papers at AJS (Association for Jewish Studies - Boston in December) about language and identity or language and culture (broadly defined). Does anyone else want to participate? -Sarah Bunin Benor Stanford University

Date: Tue, 25 Mar 2003 11:20:01 -0800 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: knaanic or judeo-czech (fwd)

Does anyone know where to find resources on Judeo-Czech? -Sarah ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Mon, 24 Mar 2003 18:53:40 EST From: Silvermickyag @ aol.com To: editor @ jewish-languages.org Subject: knaanic or judeo-czech I found your website with great interest and would like to know how to find a glossary or list of knaanic words from the few extant sources eg Or Zarua. Have any been published? Where does the Lord's prayer extract come from? I would really appreciate a reply. Micky Silver (London).

Date: Tue, 25 Mar 2003 15:30:48 -0500 
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu> 
Subject: Re: knaanic or judeo-czech (fwd)

I don't know whose translation it is, but it was/is (see any Gideon Bible for John 3:14) a popular Christian Hebraist past-time and proselytization endeavor to make such translations (even Ethnologue still has strong missionary For Knaanic, see: Weinreich, Uriel 1956. "Yiddish, Knaanic, Slavic: The Basic Relationships". In For Roman Jakobson (The Hague: Mouton), 622- 632. Gold, David L. "For Max Weinreich on his seventieth birthday: Studies in Jewish languages, literature, and society". Language-Sciences; 1974, 31, Aug, 47-53. The Hague: Mouton. ABSTRACT: A review, grounded in theoretical linguistics and Jewish intralinguistics (the comparative study of the speech of Jews and related groups), which examines a volume of contributions pertinent to the language sciences: Yiddish, Dzhudezmo, Hebrew, Yahudic and Knaanic linguistics, Jewish onomastics, Jewish folklore, Yiddish literature, and translation theory. Most of the studies, by specialists writing in their own fields, have, expectedly, now become permanent contributions to our growing knowledge of Jewish languages. A few, by specialists in one field venturing into another, are unsatisfactory. INDEX PHRASE: contributions to Yiddish, Dzhudezmo, Hebrew, Yahudic & Knaanic linguistics, Jewish onomastics, folklore, literature, translation theory; book review Valete, Seth ************************************************* Seth Jerchower Public Services Librarian Center for Advanced Judaic Studies Library University of Pennsylvania 420 Walnut Street Philadelphia, PA 19106 Tel: (215) 238-1290, ext. 203 Fax: (215) 238-1540 sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu http://www.library.upenn.edu/cajs/ *************************************************

Date: Tue, 25 Mar 2003 15:35:24 -0500 
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu> 
Subject: Re: knaanic or judeo-czech (fwd)

Whoops, I meant to add that: "Ethnologue still has strong missionary ties and interests."

April 2003

Date: Thu, 3 Apr 2003 17:13:07 -0500 
From: Seth Jerchower <sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu> 
Subject: all for Papers, AJS Boston 2003 - Genizah Studies

A session on Cairo Genizah studies at the 2003 AJS Conference is currently being organized. Proposals for papers on are now being accepted. Any topic pertaining to original and/or current research dealing with the Cairo Genizah will be considered. Special consideration may also be given to proposals dealing with the "European Genizah" if the topic involves original research within the field. Those interested in participating are kindly asked to submit a brief abstract no later than 9 April 2003. Please direct abstracts and/or inquiries via email to Seth Jerchower at sethj@pobox.upenn.edu. For additional information on the conference and the call for papers, please visit the AJS website at: http://www.brandeis.edu/ajs/Conference%20Information%202003.html ************************************************* Seth Jerchower Public Services Librarian Center for Advanced Judaic Studies Library University of Pennsylvania 420 Walnut Street Philadelphia, PA 19106 Tel: (215) 238-1290, ext. 203 Fax: (215) 238-1540 sethj @ pobox.upenn.edu http://www.library.upenn.edu/cajs/ *************************************************

Date: Tue, 8 Apr 2003 15:13:06 -0700 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: Endangered Languages Documentation Programme (FWD)

Forwarded from the Linguistic Anthropology list. ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Mon, 07 Apr 2003 09:18:24 -0800 From: Richard J Senghas <Richard.Senghas @ sonoma.edu> To: Linganth List <linganth @ ats.rochester.edu> Subject: ELDP - 2003 Initial Announcement [FORWARDED: reply to "e.potts" <info @ eldp.soas.ac.uk>; please do not use reply function -RJS] *** Apologies for any cross-posting *** Endangered Languages Documentation Programme Advance Notice: 2003 Call for Proposals With the first round of the ELDP application process completed and offers of grants made, we propose to move straight on the the second call for Preliminary Applications. The purpose of this e-mail is to outline the timetable and the key structural changes to the programme. It should be noted that the timetable has been brought forward when compared with that of 2002. 2002 Outcomes The ELDP received approximately 150 applications in response to its first call for applications. About 40 of these were invited to submit detailed applications, and although it was not possible to offer financial support to all good proposals, the Fund was able to make formal offers of grants to 21 applicants: Studentships, Fellowships and Project grants. Details of the offers, and subsequently details of those accepted, will be publicised on the ELDP web page shortly (www.eldp.soas.ac.uk). 2003 Timetable 16th May 2003 - Revised guidelines and forms available on the web page. 8th August 2003 - Deadline for submission of Preliminary Applications. 19th September 2003 - Invitations to submit Detailed Applications dispatched. 14th November 2003 - Deadline for submission of Detailed Applications. 27th February 2004 - Announcement of Funding Awards. The timetable will be repeated annually. 2003 Guidance The new guidelines and application forms for the 2003 funding round will be published on the website by Friday 26th May 2003. In the meantime, the 2002 guidelines may be used as a general guide. The five types of application used in 2002 will remain, although additional guidelindes as to funding limits will be provided. The main aims of the Fund remain the documentation of seriously endangered languages and the criteria remain (a) endangerment, (b) significance of the language and (c) quality of proposal. The Fund's primary concern is with documentation rather than focused revitalisation - although the link is appreciated and sometimes desirable. As such prospective applicants should structure the documentation in such a way as to assist local communities in preserving and fostering highly endangered ancestral languages and speech ways. Whilst in essence the guidelines will remain broadly similar, there will be a number of budgetary refinements. Key changes that you may wish to note will be as follows: - Overhead/ Institutional Administration costs will not be eligible. - Top-up salaries for established/ employed academics will not be eligible (this includes the funding of non-institutional funded summer vacation periods). - A limit of £2000 (pounds sterling) may be requested for publications. - Major equipment costs (i.e. laptops, camcorders etc) will not be provided for projects where the period of fieldwork is limited. - Modest training activity for local communities (within the context of a substantive project) will be eligible for support.

Date: Sun, 20 Apr 2003 03:32:01 
From: Mihalevy @ aol.com 
Subject: Kein Thema

Estimados amigos, eskapó el katalogo de la ekspozisyon LADINO KERIDO MIO- Livros en lingua djudeo-espanyola estampados en el syeklo XX (kon ca. 100 ilustrasyones). Editura Doelling und Galitz, Hamburgo 2003, ISBN 3935549-54-7, EUR 10 (ca. 10 $). eskrito por Michael Halévy, Instituto de investigasyon sovre la istorya de los djudios en Alemanya. Pedidos: Kaza de editura Dölling und Galitz, Grosse Bergstraße 253, D-22767 Hamburg, email: DuGPresse @ aol.com

Date: Tue, 22 Apr 2003 14:58:26 -0700 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject:AJS Sephardi/Mizrahi Studies Caucus Discussion List (Week of April 20) (fwd)

Some pieces of interest from the Sephardi/Mizrahi Studies list: ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Tue, 22 Apr 2003 16:16:27 -0400 From: Aviva Ben-Ur <aben-ur @ judnea.umass.edu> To: Caucus <aben-ur @ judnea.umass.edu> Subject: AJS Sephardi/Mizrahi Studies Caucus Discussion List (Week of April 20) Association for Jewish Studies Sephardi/Mizrahi Studies Caucus Discuss List Editor/Moderator: Aviva Ben-Ur Aviva Ben-Ur <aben-ur @ judnea.umass.edu> Week of Sunday, April 20, 2003 (18 Nissan 5763; Pesah medianos/hol ha-mo¹ed Pesah) Index: ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6. New Publication in Ladino: ³A Language in Hell: The Use of Judeo-Spanish in the Death Camps² (Santa Puche) From: salsan <salsan @ arrakis.es> Date: Tuesday, April 15, 2003 7:09 PM Keridos amigos, Vos kero anunsiar ke aparesio mi artikolo entitolado 'Una lingua en el inferno: el uzo del djudeo-espanyol en los kampos de la muerte', en la revista elektronika de la Universidad de Murcia. Si alguno estash enteresados en meldarlo, su adreso es: http://www.um.es/tonosdigital/index.htm Solo devesh azer 'klick' en 'estudios' i lo podresh topar. Shalom kon berahot, Salva Dr. SANTA PUCHE, Salvador Tf: 968-792197 Fax: 968-752131 salsan@arrakis.es [edit: slight edit] ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10. Electronic book list of Judaica in Spanish and Portuguese (Wyman) From: <Dan @ DanWymanBooks.com> Via: Rachel Simon <rsimon @ Princeton.EDU> Date: Monday, April 7, 2003 8:43 AM Judaica in Spanish & Portuguese Dear Friends, We are pleased to announce the publication of our latest electronic book list: Judaica in Spanish & Portuguese, with additional items in English and Yiddish concerning Jewish life in Latin America (234 items). This list is available online via our website, www.danwymanbooks.com Please let us know what is of interest. Thanks, Dan Wyman, Books http://www.DanWymanBooks.com 47 Dartmouth St. Springfield, MA 01109 USA Dan@DanWymanBooks.com ph: 413.846.6357 e-fax: 208.567.8926 >>> We Find Good Homes For Nice Jewish Books <<< ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11. Inauguration of Sephardic Memorial Plaque at Auschwitz (Amado Bortnick) From: Rabortnic2 @ aol.com Date: Monday, April 21, 2003 12:34 PM I did send it to Dallas Jewish Week; I hope they will print it. The Dallas Holocaust Center will also publish a slightly different version of it. To see pictures, go to: http://www.sephardicstudies.org/photos.html Rachel Amado Bortnick ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Date: Wed, 23 Apr 2003 08:11:08 -0700 
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @ stanford.edu> 
Subject: words for peace

Here is a request for words for peace in specific Jewish languages. Please send responses directly to the sender, Marco Cimarosti <marco.cimarosti @ essetre.it>. ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Wed, 23 Apr 2003 17:02:31 +0200 From: Marco Cimarosti <marco.cimarosti @ essetre.it> Subject: How do you say "PEACE"? Hello to everybody. We are collecting the word for "peace" in as many languages as we could, as a small sign of protest against the state of permanent war that the world is running into. See our list here: http://www.columbia.edu/~fdc/pace However, many languages are still missing. Among these, many Jewish languages (historical or current), e.g.: - Arabi (aka Judeo-Arabic); - Bagitto (old dialect of the Leghorn=Livorno Jewish community, Italy); - Bukharic (aka Judeo-Persian); - Italkian (aka Judeo-Italian); - ... Thank you in advance. Marco Cimarosti

Date: Wed, 30 Apr 2003 02:19:47 -0400 
From:: Edward Weiss <sw @ weiss.net> 
Subject: Toronto Lox

Hello, linguists and friends: Several months ago, I posted an observation I made about some Jewish speakers in the Toronto area pronouncing the word "lox" as /l^ks/ (or something similar) instead of /laks/, which I believe to be the more common pronunciation among the general public. The same was true for other colloquial Ashkenazic words (e.g. "shabbos" = /sh^bIs/, "daven" = /d^vIn/). All the while, though, the same speakers would pronounce English "locks" as /laks/. In the meantime, I've been thinking about how to best go about investigating this, and I thought an mostly-informal online survey might provide some initial insight. I've recently completed work on its design and I was wondering if anyone would care to comment on the survey and/or the phenomenon before I release it to the general public. If you're interested, let me know, and I'll forward you the URL. Thanks! Ed Weiss sw @ weiss.net

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